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Adiantum capillus-veneris

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Adiantum capillus-veneris, the Southern maidenhair fern, black maidenhair fern, maidenhair fern,<ref name=BSBI07>Template:Cite web</ref> and venus hair fern, is a species of ferns in the genus Adiantum and the family Pteridaceae<ref name="Christenhusz-2011"/> with a subcosmopolitan worldwide distribution. It is cultivated as a popular garden fern and houseplant.<ref name="wild">Wildflower.org-NPIN: Adiantum capillus-veneris (Southern maidenhair fern) . accessed 4.04.2011</ref>

Distribution

Adiantum capillus-veneris is native to the southern half of the United States from California to the Atlantic coast, through Mexico and Central America, to South America. It is also native to Eurasia, the Levant in Western Asia, and Australasia.<ref name="wild"/><ref>The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill</ref><ref name="cundall">Cundall. P., (2004) Native Plants:The definitive guide to Australian plants, Global Book Publishing Lane Cove, N.S.W, p.298, Template:ISBN</ref> There are two disjunct occurrences in the northern part of North America: at Cascade Springs in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia. In both instances, the warm microclimate created by hot mineral springs permits the growth of the plant far north of its normal range. It is similar in Zvonce spa resort (Звоначка Бања, Zvonačka Banja), near Pirot in Serbia, where hot mineral springs provide adequate heat and humidity for the survival of this species.<ref>Template:Citeweb</ref>

It is found in temperate climates from warm-temperate to tropical, where the moisture content is high but not saturating, in the moist, well-drained sand, loam or limestone of many habitats, including rainforests, shrub and woodlands, broadleaf and coniferous forests, and desert cliff seeps, and springs. It often may be seen growing on moist, sheltered and shaded sandstone or limestone formations, generally south-facing in the southern hemisphere, north-facing in the north, or in gorges.<ref name="wild"/> It occurs throughout Africa in moist places by streams.<ref name="SimTR">Template:Cite book</ref> On moist sandstone cliffs it grows in full or partial shade, even when unprotected.<ref name="RouxJP">Template:Cite book</ref>

Adiantum capillus-veneris foliage texture.
In limestone cliff seep habitat, Judean Desert, Israel.

Description

Adiantum capillus-veneris grows from Template:Convert in height; its fronds arising in clusters from creeping rhizomes Template:Convert tall, with very delicate, light green fronds much subdivided into pinnae Template:Convert long and broad; the frond rachis is black and wiry.<ref name="wild"/><ref name="cundall"/>

Cultivation

Adiantum capillus-veneris is cultivated and widely available around the world for planting in natural landscape native plants and traditional shade gardens, for outdoor container gardens, and commonly as an indoor houseplant.

Conservation

The fern is listed as an endangered species in North Carolina (as southern maidenhair-fern) and threatened species in Kentucky (as venus hair fern), due to loss of Appalachian habitat.

Uses

This plant is used medicinally by Native Americans. The Mahuna people use the plant internally for rheumatism,<ref>Romero, John Bruno 1954 The Botanical Lore of the California Indians. New York. Vantage Press, Inc. (p. 60)</ref> and the Navajo people of Kayenta, AZ use an infusion of the plant as a lotion for bumblebee and centipede stings.<ref name="Wyman, Leland C p. 14">Wyman, Leland C. and Stuart K. Harris 1951 The Ethnobotany of the Kayenta Navaho. Albuquerque. The University of New Mexico Press (p. 14)</ref> The Navajo people also smoke it or take it internally to treat mental illness.<ref name="Wyman, Leland C p. 14"/>

In the traditional medicine of Iran, frond infusion of Adiantum capillus-veneris is used for jaundice therapy.<ref>Tewari D, Mocan A, Parvanov ED, Sah AN, Nabavi SM, Huminiecki L, Ma ZF, Lee YY, Horbańczuk JO, Atanasov AG. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part I. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 15;8:518. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00518.</ref>

References

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External links

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