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Chickpea

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Cicer arietinum noir - MHNT

The chickpea or chick pea (Template:Lang) is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Its different types are variously known as gram<ref name=eb9>"Template:Cite EB9</ref><ref name=GRIN>Template:GRIN</ref> or Bengal gram,<ref name=GRIN/> garbanzo<ref name=GRIN/> or garbanzo bean, and Egyptian pea.<ref name=eb9/> Chickpea seeds are high in protein. It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and 7500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East.<ref name="po">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Chickpea is a key ingredient in hummus, chana masala, and can be ground into flour and made into falafel. It is also used in salads, soups and stews. The chickpea is important in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine and in 2016, India produced 64% of the world's total chickpeas.<ref name="faostat16" />

Etymology

The name "chickpea" traces back through the French Template:Lang to Template:Lang, Latin for "chickpea" (from which the Roman cognomen Cicero was taken). The Oxford English Dictionary lists a 1548 citation that reads, "Cicer may be named in English Cich, or ciche pease, after the Frenche tongue." The dictionary cites "Chick-pea" in the mid-18th century; the original word in English taken directly from French was chich, found in print in English in 1388. In neo-latin (modern Italian) it is known as a "cece" (CHAY-chay) in the singular, and "ceci" (CHAY-chee) in the plural.

The word Template:Lang, from an alteration of Old Spanish Template:Lang, came first to American English as garvance in the 17th century, being gradually anglicized to calavance, though it came to refer to a variety of other beans (cf. calavance). The current form garbanzo comes directly from modern Spanish,<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> and is commonly used in the United States.

History

Domesticated chickpeas have been found in the aceramic levels of Jericho (PPNB) along with Çayönü in Turkey and in Neolithic pottery at Hacilar, Turkey. They were found in the late Neolithic (about 3500 BC) at Thessaly, Kastanas, Lerna and Dimini, Greece. In southern France, Mesolithic layers in a cave at L'Abeurador, Hérault, have yielded wild chickpeas carbon dated to 6790±90 BC.<ref>Zohary, Daniel and Hopf, Maria, Domestication of Plants in the Old World (third edition), Oxford University Press, 2000, p 110</ref>

Chickpeas are mentioned in Charlemagne's Template:Lang (about 800 AD) as Template:Lang, as grown in each imperial demesne. Albertus Magnus mentions red, white, and black varieties. Nicholas Culpeper noted "chick-pease or cicers" are less "windy" than peas and more nourishing. Ancient people also associated chickpeas with Venus because they were said to offer medical uses such as increasing sperm and milk, provoking menstruation and urine, and helping to treat kidney stones.<ref name=Culpeper>Template:Cite book</ref> "White cicers" were thought to be especially strong and helpful.<ref name=Culpeper/>

In 1793, ground-roast chickpeas were noted by a German writer as a substitute for coffee in Europe.<ref name="ICARDA">Template:Cite web</ref> In the First World War, they were grown for this use in some areas of Germany.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> They are still sometimes brewed instead of coffee.<ref name="ICARDA"/>

Lime green chickpeas

Genome sequencing

Sequencing of the chickpea genome has been completed for 90 chickpea genotypes, including several wild species.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> A collaboration of 20 research organizations, led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), sequenced CDC Frontier, a kabuli chickpea variety, and identified more than 28,000 genes and several million genetic markers.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Geographic cultivation

Flowering and fruiting chickpea plant
Chickpea pods
Black chickpeas

The plant grows to 20–50 cm (8–20 in) high and has small, feathery leaves on either side of the stem. Chickpeas are a type of pulse, with one seedpod containing two or three peas. It has white flowers with blue, violet, or pink veins.

Several varieties of chickpea are cultivated throughout the world. Desi chana closely resembles both seeds found on archaeological sites and the wild plant ancestor of domesticated chickpeas, Cicer reticulatum, which only grows in southeast Turkey, where chickpeas are believed to have originated. Desi chana has small, darker seeds and a rough coat. They are grown mostly in Pakistan, India and other parts of South Asia, as well as in Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iran.<ref name= "fao">Heuzé V., Tran G., Boudon A., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2015. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/319 Last updated on October 20, 2015, 14:04</ref> Desi means 'country' or 'native' in Hindustani; its other names include kala chana ("black chickpea" in both Hindi and Urdu) or chholaa boot. Desi chana can be black, green or speckled. This variety is hulled and split to make chana dal.

Garbanzo beans or 'kabuli' chana are lighter-coloured, larger, and with a smoother coat, and are mainly grown in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, South America, and South Asia.<ref name= "fao" /> The name means "from Kabul" in Hindi and Urdu, and this variety was thought to come from Kabul, Afghanistan when it was introduced to India in the 18th century.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> An uncommon black chickpea, ceci neri, is grown only in Apulia, in southeastern Italy. It is around the same size as garbanzo beans, being both larger and darker than the 'desi' variety.

Uses

Human consumption

Template:See also

Chana Dal, split Bengal gram
Hummus with olive oil
Dhokla, steamed chickpea snack

Chickpeas are usually rapidly boiled for 10 minutes and then simmered for a longer period. Dried chickpeas need a long cooking time (1–2 hours) but will easily fall apart when cooked longer. If soaked for 12–24 hours before use, cooking time can be shortened by around 30 minutes. Chickpeas can also be pressure cooked or sous vide cooked at Template:Convert.

Mature chickpeas can be cooked and eaten cold in salads, cooked in stews, ground into flour, ground and shaped in balls and fried as falafel, made into a batter and baked to make farinata or cecina, or fried to make panelle. Chickpea flour is known as gram flour or besan in South Asia and used frequently in South Asian cuisine.

Chickpeas are popular in the Iberian Peninsula. In Portugal, they are one of the main ingredients in rancho, eaten with pasta and meat, including Portuguese sausages, or with rice. They are used in other hot dishes with bacalhau and in soup. In Spain, they are used cold in tapas and salads, as well as in cocido madrileño. In Italy, chickpeas are eaten with pasta or in soup. In southern Italy, chickpea flour is made into a batter for panelle, a sort of crepe. In Egypt, chickpeas are used as a topping for kushari.

Ḥummuṣ is the Arabic word for chickpeas, which are often cooked and ground into a paste and mixed with ṭaḥīna (sesame seed paste), the blend called ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna. Chickpeas are roasted, spiced, and eaten as a snack, such as leblebi. By the end of the 20th century, hummus had become commonplace in American cuisine.<ref name="marks">Marks, Gil (2010), Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 269-271</ref> By 2010, 5% of Americans consumed hummus on a regular basis,<ref name="marks"/> and it was present in 17% of American households.<ref name="fox">Template:Cite web</ref>

Some varieties of chickpeas can be popped and eaten like popcorn.<ref>Deppe, Carol. The Resilient Gardener. Chelsea Green, 2010, p. 241</ref>

Chickpeas and Bengal grams are used to make curries and are one of the most popular vegetarian foods in South Asia and in diaspora communities of many other countries served with variety of breads or steamed rice. Popular dishes in Indian cuisine are made with chickpea flour, such as Mirchi Bada and mirapakaya bajji. In India, as well as in the Levant, unripe chickpeas are often picked out of the pod and eaten as a raw snack and the leaves are eaten as a leaf vegetable in salads. In India, desserts such as besan halwa and sweets such as besan barfi are made.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Chickpea flour is used to make "Burmese tofu" which was first known among the Shan people of Burma. In South Asian cuisine the Chickpea flour (Besan) is used as a batter to coat vegetables before deep frying to make Pakoras. The flour is also used as a batter to coat vegetables and meats before frying, or fried alone such as panelle (little bread), a chickpea fritter from Sicily. Chickpea flour is used to make the Mediterranean flatbread socca and called panisse in Provence, southern France. It is made of cooked chickpea flour, poured into saucers, allowed to set, cut in strips, and fried in olive oil, often eaten during Lent. In Tuscany chickpea flour (farina di ceci) is used to make an oven baked pancake: the flour is mixed with water, oil and salt. Chickpea flour known as Kadlehittu in Kannada is used for making sweet dish Mysorepak.

In the Philippines, chickpeas preserved in syrup are eaten as sweets and in desserts such as halo-halo. Jews from Ashkenazi countries traditionally serve whole chickpeas at a Shalom Zachar celebration for baby boys.

Guasanas or garbanza is a Mexican chickpea street snack. The beans, while still green, are cooked in water and salt, kept in a steamer to maintain their humidity, and served in a plastic bag.

A chickpea-derived liquid (aquafaba) can be used as an egg white replacement to make meringue.

Animal feed

Chickpeas serve as an energy and protein source as animal feed.<ref name= Bampidis>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Raw chickpeas have a lower trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor content than peas, common beans, and soybeans. This leads to higher nutrition values and fewer digestive problems in nonruminants. Nonruminant diets can be completed with 200 g/kg of raw chickpeas to promote egg production and growth of birds and pigs. Higher amounts can be used when chickpeas are treated with heat.<ref name= Bampidis/>

Experiments have shown that ruminants grow equally well and produce an equal amount and quality of milk when soybean or cereal meals are replaced with chickpeas. Pigs show the same performance, but growing pigs experience a negative effect of raw chickpea feed; extruded chickpeas can increase performance even in growing pigs. In poultry diet experiments with untreated chickpeas, only young broilers (starting period) showed worse performance. Fish performed equally well when their soybean or cereal diet was replaced by extruded chickpeas.<ref name= Bampidis/> Chickpea seeds have also been used in rabbit diets.<ref name= "fao" />

Secondary components of legumes — such as lecithin, polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and amylase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors — can lead to lower nutrient availability, thus to negative effects in growth and health of animals (especially in nonruminants). Ruminants have generally less problems to digest legumes with secondary components, since they can inactivate them in the rumen liquor. Their diets can be supplemented by 300 g/kg or more raw chickpea seeds.<ref name= Bampidis/> However, protein digestibility and energy availability can be improved through treatments, such as germination, dehulling, and heat. Extrusion is a very good heat technique to destroy secondary components in legumes, since the proteins are irreversibly denatured. Overprocessing may decrease the nutritional value; extrusion leads to losses in minerals and vitamins, while dry heating does not change the chemical composition.<ref name= Bampidis/>

Nutrition

Template:Nutritionalvalue

Chickpeas are a nutrient-dense food, providing rich content (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fibre, folate, and certain dietary minerals such as iron and phosphorus.<ref name= El-Adawy>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Thiamin, vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc contents are moderate, providing 10–16% of the DV. Chickpeas have a Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score of about 0.76,<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> which is higher than many other legumes and cereals.

Compared to reference levels established by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization,<ref name=El-Adawy/> proteins in cooked and germinated chickpeas are rich in essential amino acids such as lysine, isoleucine, tryptophan, and total aromatic amino acids.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

A 100 g serving of cooked chickpeas provides Template:Convert. Cooked chickpeas are 60% water, 27% carbohydrates, 9% protein and 3% fat (table).<ref name=Bampidis/><ref name=El-Adawy /> 75% of lipid content is unsaturated fatty acids for which linoleic acid comprises 43% of total fat.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Effects of cooking

Cooking treatments do not lead to variance in total protein and carbohydrate content. Soaking and cooking of dry seeds possibly induces chemical modification of protein-fibre complexes, which leads to an increase in crude fibre content. Thus, cooking can increase protein quality by inactivating or destroying heat-labile antinutritional factors. Cooking also increases protein digestibility, essential amino acid index, and protein efficiency ratio. Although cooking lowers concentrations of amino acids such as tryptophan, lysine, total aromatic, and sulphur-containing amino acids, their contents are still higher than proposed by the FAO/WHO reference. Diffusion of reducing sugars, raffinose, sucrose and others into cooking water reduces or completely removes these components. Cooking also significantly reduces fat and mineral contents. The B vitamins riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, and pyridoxine dissolve into cooking water at differing rates.<ref name=El-Adawy />

Germination

Germination of chickpeas improves protein digestibility, although at a lower level than cooking. Germination degrades proteins to simple peptides, so improves crude protein, nonprotein nitrogen, and crude fiber content. Germination decreases lysine, tryptophan, sulphur and total aromatic amino acids, but most contents are still higher than proposed by the FAO/WHO reference pattern.<ref name=El-Adawy />

Oligosaccharides, such as stachyose and raffinose, are reduced in higher amounts during germination than during cooking. Minerals and B vitamins are retained more effectively during germination than with cooking. Phytic acids are reduced significantly, but trypsin inhibitor, tannin, and saponin reduction is less effective than cooking.<ref name=El-Adawy />

Autoclaving, microwave cooking, boiling

Protein digestibility is improved by all treatments of cooking. Essential amino acids are slightly increased by boiling and microwave cooking when compared to autoclaving and germination. Overall, microwave cooking leads to a significantly lower loss of nutrients compared to autoclaving and boiling.

Finally, all treatments lead to an improved protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio, and essential amino acid index. Microwave cooking seems to be an effective method to prepare chickpeas because of its improvement of nutritional values and its lower cooking time.<ref name=El-Adawy />

Leaves

In some parts of the world, young chickpea leaves are consumed as cooked green vegetables. Especially in malnourished populations, it can supplement important dietary nutrients, because regions where chickpeas are consumed have been sometimes found to have populations lacking micronutrients.<ref name=Ibrikci>Template:Cite journal</ref> Chickpea leaves have a significantly higher mineral content than either cabbage leaves or spinach leaves.<ref name=Ibrikci>Template:Cite journal</ref> In natural settings, environmental factors and nutrient availability could influence mineral concentrations. Nevertheless, consumption of chickpea leaves is recommended for areas where chickpeas are produced as food for humans.<ref name=Ibrikci />

Preliminary research shows that chickpea consumption may lower blood cholesterol.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name=mayo>Mixed Bean Salad (information and recipe) from The Mayo Clinic Healthy Recipes. Accessed February 2010.</ref>

Production

Production of chickpeas – 2016
Country (millions of tonnes)
Template:IND
7.8
Template:MYA
0.6
Template:PAK
0.5
Template:TUR
0.5
Template:ETH
0.4
Template:RUS
0.3
World
12.1
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations<ref name="faostat16">Template:Cite web</ref>

In 2016, world production of chickpeas was 12.1 million tonnes, led by India alone with 64% of the global total (table).<ref name=faostat16 />

Chickpea production from 1961 to 2013
Cicer arietinum

Heat and micronutrient cultivation

Agricultural yield for chickpea is often based on genetic and phenotypic variability which has recently been influenced by artificial selection.<ref>Naghavi, M.R., & Jahansouz, M.R. (2005). Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits of Iranian chickpea accessions. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 47(3): 375-379 Template:Doi</ref> The uptake of micronutrients such as inorganic phosphorus or nitrogen is vital to the plant development of Cicer arietinum, commonly known as the perennial chickpea.<ref name=":1" /> Heat cultivation and micronutrient coupling are two relatively unknown methods that are used to increase the yield and size of the chickpea. Recent research has indicated that a combination of heat treatment along with the two vital micronutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, are the most critical components to increasing the overall yield of Cicer arietinum.<ref name=":1" />

Perennial chickpeas are a fundamental source of nutrition in animal feed as they are high sources of energy and protein for livestock. Unlike other food crops, the perennial chickpea shows a remarkable capacity to change its nutritional content in response to heat cultivation. Treating the chickpea with a constant heat source increases its protein content almost threefold.<ref name=":1">Bampidis, V.A. & Christodoulou, V. (2011). Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) in animal nutrition: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 168: 1-20. Template:Doi</ref> Consequently, the impact of heat cultivation not only affects the protein content of the chickpea itself, but the ecosystem that it supports as well. Increasing the height and size of chickpea plants involves using micronutrient fertilization with varying doses of inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen.<ref name=":0" />

The level of phosphorus that a chickpea seed is exposed to during its lifecycle has a positive correlation relative to the height of the plant at full maturity.<ref name=":0">Mishra, U.S., Sirothia, P., & Bhadoria, U.S. (2009). Effects of phosphorus nutrition on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under rain fed conditions. International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences, 5(1): 85-88.</ref> Increasing the levels of inorganic phosphorus at all doses incrementally increases the height of the chickpea plant. Thus, the seasonal changes in phosphorus soil content as well as periods of drought that are known to be a native characteristic of the dry Middle-Eastern region where the chickpea is most commonly cultivated have a strong effect on the growth of the plant itself. Plant yield is also affected by a combination of phosphorus nutrition and water supply, resulting in a 12% increase in yield of the crop.<ref name=":0" />

Nitrogen nutrition is another factor that affects the yield of Cicer arietinum, although the application itself differs from other perennial crops with regards to the levels administered on the plant. High doses of nitrogen inhibit the yield of the chickpea plant.<ref name=":2" /> Drought stress is a likely factor that also inhibits the uptake of nitrogen and subsequent fixation in the roots of Cicer arietinum. The growth of the perennial chickpea is dependent on the balance between nitrogen fixation and assimilation that is also characteristic of many other agricultural plant types. The influence of drought stress, sowing date, and mineral nitrogen supply all have an effect on the yield and size of the plant, with trials showing that Cicer arietinum differed from other plant species in its capacity to assimilate mineral nitrogen supply from soil during drought stress.<ref name=":2">Wery, J., Deschamps, M., & Leger-Cresson, N. (1988). Influence of some agroclimatic factors and agronomic practices on nitrogen nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Developments in Plants and Soil Sciences, 32: 287-301.</ref> Additional minerals and micronutrients make the absorption process of nitrogen and phosphorus more available. Inorganic phosphate ions are generally attracted towards charged minerals such as iron and aluminium oxides.<ref>Hinsinger, P. (2001). Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root-induced chemical changes: A review. Plant and Soil, 237(2): 173-195.</ref>

Additionally, growth and yield are also limited by zinc and boron deficiencies in the soil. Boron-rich soil resulted in an increase of chickpea yield and size, while soil fertilization with zinc seemed to have no apparent effect on the chickpea yield.<ref>Johnson, S.E., Lauren, J.G., Welch, R.M., & Duxbury, J.M. (2005). A comparison of the effects of micronutrient seed priming and soil fertilization on the mineral nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens culinaris), rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum acstiyum) in Nepal.</ref>

Pathogens

Pathogens in chickpeas are the main cause for yield loss (up to 90%). One example is the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, present in most of the major pulse crop-growing areas and causing regular yield damages between 10 and 15%.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

From 1978 until 1995, the worldwide number of pathogens increased from 49 to 172, of which 35 have been recorded in India. These pathogens originate from the groups of bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycoplasma and nematodes and show a high genotypic variation. The most widely distributed pathogens are Ascochyta rabiei (35 countries), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (32 countries) Uromyces ciceris-arietini (25 countries), bean leafroll virus (23 countries), and Macrophomina phaseolina (21 countries).<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Ascochyta disease emergence is favored by wet weather; spores are carried to new plants by wind and water splash.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The stagnation of yield improvement over the last decades is linked to the susceptibility to pathogens.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Research for yield improvement, such as an attempt to increase yield from 0.8 to 2.0 tons per hectare by breeding cold-resistant varieties, is always linked with pathogen-resistance breeding as pathogens such as Ascochyta rabiei and F. o. f.sp. ciceris flourish in conditions such as cold temperature. Research started selecting favourable genes for pathogen resistance and other traits through marker-assisted selection. The use of this method is a promising sign for the future to achieve significant yield improvements.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

See also

References

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External links

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