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Coriander

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Coriander (Template:IPAc-en;<ref name="epd">Template:Cite EPD</ref> Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro (Template:IPAc-en)<ref name="epd"/> or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking.

Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste, but a smaller group, of about 4–14% of people tested, think the leaves taste like bath soap, as linked to a gene which detects aldehyde chemicals also present in soap.<ref name="Ledb">Template:Cite web</ref>

Botanical description

Flowers of Coriandrum sativum

Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft plant growing to Template:Convert tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the center of the umbel longer (Template:Convert) than those pointing toward it (only Template:Convert long). The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp Template:Convert in diameter.

Etymology

First attested in English in the late 14th century, the word "coriander" derives from the Template:Lang-fro, which comes from Template:Lang-la,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> in turn from Template:Lang-grc, koriannon,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>"Coriander", Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed., 1989. Oxford University Press.</ref> derived from Template:Lang-grc, kóris (a bed bug), and was given on account of its foetid, bed bug-like smell.<ref>Template:Cite EB1911</ref> The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek Template:Transl<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> written in Linear B syllabic script (reconstructed as Template:Transl, similar to the name of Minos's daughter Ariadne) which later evolved to koriannon or koriandron,<ref name="Chadwick">Template:Cite book</ref> and koriander (German).<ref name="spice">Template:Cite web</ref>

Template:Lang is the Spanish word for coriander, also deriving from coriandrum. It is the common term in North American English for coriander leaves, due to their extensive use in Mexican cuisine.<ref name=spice/>

History

Although native to Iran,<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> coriander grows wild over a wide area of Western Asia and southern Europe, prompting the comment, "It is hard to define exactly where this plant is wild and where it only recently established itself."<ref name=ZoharyHopf>Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 205–206</ref> Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemar Cave in Israel, which may be the oldest archaeological find of coriander. About half a litre of coriander mericarps was recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamen, and because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt, Zohary and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians.<ref name=ZoharyHopf />

Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC. One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, it apparently was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves.<ref name=Chadwick /> This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period; the large quantities of the species retrieved from an Early Bronze Age layer at Sitagroi in Macedonia could point to cultivation of the species at that time.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Uses

All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Coriander is used in cuisines throughout the world.<ref name=Samuelsson>Template:Cite book</ref>

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Leaves

Coriander leaves

The leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, dhania, Chinese parsley, or (in the US and commercially in Canada) cilantro.

Coriander potentially may be confused with culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), an Apiaceae like coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), but from a different genus. Culantro has a distinctly different spiny appearance, a more potent volatile leaf oil<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> and a stronger aroma.

The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overtones.<ref name=McGee>Template:Cite news</ref>

The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods (such as chutneys and salads); in Chinese, Thai, and Burmese dishes; in Mexican cooking, particularly in salsa and guacamole and as a garnish; and in salads in Russia and other CIS countries. In Portugal, chopped coriander is used in the bread soup Açorda, and in India, chopped coriander is a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal.<ref name=Moulin>Template:Cite book</ref> As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish immediately before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes.<ref name=spice/> The leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried or frozen.

Fruits

Dried coriander fruits, often called "coriander seeds" when used as a spice

The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds. The word "coriander" in food preparation may refer solely to these seeds (as a spice), rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool and pinene. It is described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavoured.

The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of Template:Convert, while var. C. s. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of Template:Convert. Large-fruited types are grown mainly by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco, India, and Australia, and contain a low volatile oil content (0.1-0.4%). They are used extensively for grinding and blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and usually have a volatile oil content around 0.4-1.8%, so are highly valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Coriander is commonly found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Roasting or heating the seeds in a dry pan heightens the flavour, aroma, and pungency. Ground coriander seed loses flavour quickly in storage and is best ground fresh. Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin, acting as a thickener in a mixture called dhana jeera.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack. They are the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes sambhar and rasam.

Outside of Asia, coriander seed is used widely in the process for pickling vegetables. In Germany and South Africa (see boerewors), the seeds are used while making sausages. In Russia and Central Europe, coriander seed is an occasional ingredient in rye bread (e.g. Borodinsky bread), as an alternative to caraway. The Zuni people of North America have adapted it into their cuisine, mixing the powdered seeds ground with chile and using it as a condiment with meat, and eating leaves as a salad.<ref>Stevenson, Matilda Coxe 1915 Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 (p. 66)</ref>

Coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers. The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character. Coriander seed is one of the main traditional ingredients in the South African Boerewors, a spiced mixed-meat sausage.

One preliminary study showed coriander essential oil to inhibit Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Coriander is listed as one of the original ingredients in the secret formula for Coca-Cola.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Roots

Coriander roots

Coriander roots have a deeper, more intense flavor than the leaves, and are used in a variety of Asian cuisines, especially in Thai dishes such as soups or curry pastes.

Flowering coriander for aphid control

In the Salinas Valley of California, aphids have been one of the worst pests in the lettuce fields. The USDA Cooperative Extension Service has been investigating organic methods for aphid control, and experimented with coriander plants and Alyssum plants; when intercropped with the lettuce and allowed to flower, they attract beneficial insects such as hoverflies, the larvae of which eat up to 150 aphids per day before they mature into flying adults.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Nutrition

Template:Nutritional value Raw coriander leaves are 92% water, 4% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and less than 1% fat (table). The nutritional profile of coriander seeds is different from the fresh stems or leaves. In a 100 gram reference amount, leaves are particularly rich in vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin K, with moderate content of dietary minerals (table). Although seeds generally have lower content of vitamins, they do provide significant amounts of dietary fiber, calcium, selenium, iron, magnesium and manganese.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Taste and smell

The essential oil from coriander leaves and seeds contains mixed polyphenols and terpenes, including linalool as the major constituent accounting for the aroma and flavor of coriander.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Different people may perceive the taste of coriander leaves differently.<ref name=Ledb /> Those who enjoy it say it has a refreshing, lemony or lime-like flavor, while those who dislike it have a strong aversion to its taste and smell, characterizing it as soapy or rotten.<ref name=McGee /><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Studies also show variations in preference among different ethnic groups: 21% of East Asians, 17% of Caucasians, and 14% of people of African descent expressed a dislike for coriander, but among the groups where coriander is popular in their cuisine, only 7% of South Asians, 4% of Hispanics, and 3% of Middle Eastern subjects expressed a dislike.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Studies have shown that 80% of identical twins shared the same preference for the herb, but fraternal twins agreed only about half the time, strongly suggesting a genetic component to the preference. In a genetic survey of nearly 30,000 people, two genetic variants linked to perception of coriander have been found, the most common of which is a gene involved in sensing smells.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> The gene, OR6A2, lies within a cluster of olfactory-receptor genes, and encodes a receptor that is highly sensitive to aldehyde chemicals. Flavor chemists have found that the coriander aroma is created by a half-dozen or so substances, and most of these are aldehydes. Those who dislike the taste are sensitive to the offending unsaturated aldehydes and at the same time may be unable to detect the aromatic chemicals that others find pleasant.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Association between its taste and several other genes, including a bitter-taste receptor, have also been found.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Allergy

Some people are allergic to coriander leaves or seeds, having symptoms similar to those of other food allergies.<ref name="aip">Template:Cite journal</ref> In one study, 32% of pin-prick tests in children and 23% in adults were positive for coriander and other members of the Apiaceae family, including caraway, fennel, and celery.<ref name=aip /> The allergic symptoms may be minor or life-threatening.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Similar plants

Other herbs are used where they grow in much the same way as coriander leaves.

  • Eryngium foetidum has a similar, but more intense, taste. Known as culantro, it is found in Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean.<ref name="Tucker, A.O. 1992">Template:Cite journal</ref>
  • Persicaria odorata is commonly called Vietnamese coriander, or rau răm. The leaves have a similar odour and flavour to coriander. It is a member of the Polygonaceae, or buckwheat family.<ref name="Tucker, A.O. 1992" />
  • Papaloquelite is one common name for Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum, a member of the Asteraceae, the sunflower family. This species is found growing wild from Texas to Argentina.<ref name="Tucker, A.O. 1992" />

References

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External links

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