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Narcissus tazetta

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Narcissus tazetta (paperwhite, bunch-flowered narcissus, bunch-flowered daffodil,<ref name=BSBI07>Template:Cite web</ref> Chinese sacred lily, cream narcissus, joss flower, polyanthus narcissus) is a perennial ornamental plant that grows from a bulb. Cultivars of N. tazetta include 'Paperwhite', 'Grand Soleil d'Or' and 'Ziva', which are popularly used for forcing indoors, as is the form of N. tazetta known as Chinese Sacred Lily.<ref name="FarrCarter2005">Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="MartinGarden2000">Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="Li2002">Template:Cite book</ref>

Description

Narcissus tazetta (the mountain ecotype) in Israel.

Narcissus tazetta is amongst the tallest of the narcissi, and can grow to a height of up to 80 cm,<ref name=Tazetta/> with thin, flat leaves up to 40 cm long and 15 mm wide. Umbels have as many as 8 flowers, white with a yellow corona.<ref>Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 290 Narcissus tazetta</ref><ref>Haworth, Adrian Hardy. 1819. Supplementum Plantarum Succulentarum 142, Hermione tazetta </ref><ref>Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel. 1848. Flora Telluriana 4: 21 Jonquilla tazetta </ref><ref>Rouy, Georges C. Chr. 1912. Flore de France 13: 40 Narcissus linnaeanus </ref><ref>Sessé y Lacasta, Martín & Mociño, José Mariano. 1894. Flora Mexicana ed. 2: 85 Pancratium tazetta</ref>

Taxonomy

Subspecies

Six subspecies are accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families:<ref name="WCSP">Search for "Narcissus tazetta", Template:Citation</ref>

  • N. tazetta subsp. aureus (Jord. & Fourr.) Baker<ref>Baker, John Gilbert. 1888. Handbook of the Amarylldaceae p 9</ref> syn. N. bertolonii – south-east France, Sardinia, north-west Italy, Algeria, Morocco
  • N. tazetta subsp. canariensis (Burb.) Baker<ref name="baker8">Baker, John Gilbert. 1888. Handbook of the Amarylldaceae p 8</ref> – Canary Islands
  • N. tazetta subsp. chinensis (M.Roem.) Masam. & Yanagih.<ref>Flora of China v 24 p 269, Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis, common name 水仙 shui xian </ref><ref>Masamune, Genkei & Yanagihara, Masayuki. 1941. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa 31: 329.</ref> – south-east China, Japan, South Korea
  • N. tazetta subsp. corcyrensis (Herb.) Baker<ref>Baker, John Gilbert. 1888. Handbook of the Amarylldaceae p 7</ref> – Corfu (Greece)
  • N. tazetta subsp. italicus (Ker Gawl.) Baker<ref name="baker8"/> syn. N. italicus – Mediterranean from southern France to Greece
  • N. tazetta subsp. tazetta – widely distributed from the western Mediterranean to Afghanistan

Ecology

Narcissus tazetta contains a fragrant compound found in only a few other plants, including roses and Acnistus arborescens, called orcinol dimethyl ether, which is almost undetectable to the human nose. Experiments with honeybees have shown they can readily detect it.<ref name="DudarevaPichersky2006">Template:Cite book</ref>

Distribution

Narcissus tazetta is a widespread species, native to the Mediterranean region from Portugal to Turkey. It is also naturalized across the Middle East, Central Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan, as well as the Canary Islands, China (Fujian, Zhejiang), Japan, Australia, Korea, Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Bermuda, Mexico and the United States (Oregon, California, Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia)<ref>Kew Checklist of Selected Plant Families</ref> and South America.<ref>Chile Flora</ref>

Uses

Narcissus tazetta is grown commercially for its essential oil, mostly in southern France. An interspecies hybrid, with Narcissus poeticus, is also grown for its essential oil.<ref name="Groom1997">Template:Cite book</ref>

References

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