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Nymphaea alba

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Nymphaea alba, also known as the European white water lily, white water rose or white nenuphar, is an aquatic flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae.<ref name=minn /> It is native to North Africa, temperate Asia, Europe and Tropical Asia (India).<ref name="Grin">Template:Cite web</ref>


It grows in water that is Template:Convert deep and likes large ponds and lakes.

The leaves can be up to Template:Convert in diameter and take up a spread of Template:Convert per plant.<ref name=minn>Template:Cite web</ref> The flowers are white and they have many small stamens inside.<ref name=vit>Template:Cite web</ref>


It was first published and described by Carl Linnaeus in his book 'Species Plantarum', on page 510 in 1753.<ref name="Grin"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The red variety (Nymphaea alba f. rosea) is cultivated from lake Fagertärn ("Fair tarn") in the forest of Tiveden, Sweden, where they were discovered in the early 19th century. The discovery led to a large-scale exploitation which nearly made it extinct in the wild before it was protected.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Nymphaea candida J. Presl is sometimes considered a subspecies of N. alba (N. alba L. subsp. candida (J. Presl) Korsh.).<ref name=vit />

Distribution and habitat

They are found all over Europe and in parts of North Africa and the Middle East in fresh water.<ref name=vit/> In Africa, it is found in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. In temperate Asia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Siberia, Iran, Iraq, Israel and Turkey. It is found in tropical Asia, within the Indian provinces of Jammu and Kashmir. Lastly, within Europe, it is found in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Ukraine Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, France, Portugal and Spain.<ref name="Grin"/>


It contains the active alkaloids nupharine and nymphaeine, and is a sedative and an aphrodisiac/anaphrodisiac depending on sources.Template:Citation needed Although roots and stalks are used in traditional herbal medicine along with the flower, the petals and other flower parts are the most potent. Alcohol can be used to extract the active alkaloids, and it also boosts the sedative effects. The root of the plant was used by monks and nuns for hundreds of years as an anaphrodisiac, being crushed and mixed with wine. In the earliest printed medical textbooks, authors maintained this use, though warning against consuming large and frequent doses.<ref name=gift>Template:Cite book</ref>

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