Template:Use dmy dates Template:Infobox Cultivar The rutabaga (from Swedish dialectal word rotabagge), swede (from Swedish turnip, the plant being introduced from Sweden),<ref name=OED>Template:OED</ref> or neep (from the Old English næp, Latin napus, reflected in the name Brassica napobrassica) is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip. The roots are eaten in a variety of ways, and the leaves can be eaten as a leaf vegetable. The roots and tops are also used as winter feed for livestock, when they may be fed directly, or by allowing the animals to forage the plants in the field. Various European countries have a tradition of carving them into lanterns at Halloween.
Rutabaga has many national and regional names. Rutabaga is the common North American term for the plant. This comes from the Swedish dialectal word rotabagge,<ref>"rutabaga, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.</ref> from rot (root) + bagge (short, stumpy object).<ref>Våra ord: rotabagge(Swedish) Linked 2018-03-02</ref> In the U.S., the plant is also known as Swedish turnip or yellow turnip.<ref>McLaughlin, Chris. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Heirloom Vegetables. Penguin, 2010. Template:ISBN. p. 208.</ref><ref>Lindsay, Anne. Anne Lindsay's Smart Cooking. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Template:ISBN. p. 174</ref>
The term swede (from "Swedish turnip") is used in many Commonwealth Nations, including much of England, Australia, and New Zealand. The name turnip is also used in parts of Northern and Midland England, the West Country (particularly Cornwall), Ireland and Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, Manitoba, Ontario, and Atlantic Canada. In Wales, according to region, it is variously known as maip, rwden, erfin, swedsen, or swejen in Welsh,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and as swede or turnip in English.
In Scotland, it is known as turnip, and in Scots as tumshie (also used as a pejorative term for foolish or stupid people) or neep (from Old English næp, Latin napus).<ref name="CSD">The Concise Scots Dictionary, Mairi Robinson (editor) (1985)</ref> Some areas of South-East Scotland, such as Berwickshire and Roxburghshire, still use the term baigie, possibly a derivative of the Swedish dialectal word rotabagge.<ref>Dictionary of the Scots Language: baigie" Relinked 2018-03-02.</ref> The term turnip is also used for the white turnip (Brassica rapa ssp rapa).<ref name="CSD"/><ref name="Chambers">Chambers English Dictionary (Chambers 1988), Template:ISBN</ref>
Some will also refer to both swede and (white) turnip as just turnip (this word is also derived from næp).<ref name="Chambers"/> In North-East England, turnips and swedes are colloquially called snadgers, snaggers (archaic) or narkies.<ref>Rana, M. K. Vegetable Crop Science. CRC Press, 2017. Chapter 47. Template:ISBN.</ref> Rutabaga is also known as moot in the Isle of Man and the Manx language word for turnip is napin.<ref name="wiki1.sch.im">Template:Cite web</ref>
Its common name in Sweden is Template:Lang (literally "cabbage/kale root"). Similarly, in Denmark it is known as Template:Lang and Template:Lang, while in Norway it is known as Template:Lang or Template:Lang and in Estonia as Template:Lang. In Denmark and Norway, Template:Lang is sometimes confused with Swedish Template:Lang (kohlrabi). The Finnish term is Template:Lang. The Romanian term is Template:Lang. Rutabaga is known by many different regional names in German, of which Template:Lang and Template:Lang are the most widespread and most commonly used in lists of ingredients; the former is typically used in Austria to mean kohlrabi.
The first known printed reference to the rutabaga comes from the Swiss botanist Gaspard Bauhin in 1620, where he notes that it was growing wild in Sweden. It is often considered to have originated in Scandinavia or Russia.<ref name="Hawkes">Hawkes, Alex D. 1968. A World of Vegetable Cookery. New York: Simon and Schuster.</ref> There are contradictory accounts of how rutabaga arrived in England. Some sources say it arrived in England by way of Germany, while other accounts support Swedish origins. According to John Sinclair the root vegetable arrived in England from Germany around 1750.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Rutabaga arrives in Scotland by way of Sweden around 1781.<ref>Template:Cite OED</ref>
An article on the topic in The Gardeners' Chronicle suggests that the rutabaga was then introduced more widely to England in 1790. Introduction to North America came in the early 19th century with reports of rutabaga crops in Illinois as early as 1817.<ref name="Sturtevant">Sturtevant, E. L. 1919. Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants. Albany, NY: J. B. Lyon Company, p. 105.</ref>
Rutabaga was once considered a food of last resort in both Germany and France due to its association with food shortages in World War I and World War II. Boiled stew with rutabaga and water as the only ingredients (Steckrübeneintopf) was a typical food in Germany during the famines and food shortages of World War I caused by the Allied blockade (the Steckrübenwinter or Turnip Winter of 1916/17) and between 1945 and 1949. As a result, many older Germans had unhappy memories of this food.Template:Cn
World War II
One diary, written by an anonymous young girl from the Łódź Ghetto, contained substantial discussion about food and hunger. Łódź was the only ghetto on "German" soil and, due to this peculiarity of its character, the black market smuggling of food and other necessities had not been possible at Łódź. Out of the "major ghettos", Łódź had been the most affected by hunger, starvation, and malnutrition-related deaths. The young diarist recounts in detail her father arriving home one evening with two stolen rutabagas. Each of the rutabagas was divided into 3 portions which she noted "worked out at seventy decagrams each". Though her father had been given some small pieces of rutabaga, she wrote that "He knew there was nothing to eat at home, so he didn't eat them on the spot although he was very hungry … I can't write anymore because my eyes are filled with tears."<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>
Walter Meyer, who was a prisoner at the Ravensbrück men's camp, has written that "rutabaga soup became the staple food".<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> One American POW recalled rutabaga soup "made from peelings".<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> A prisoner who was held at a POW camp for captured Polish officers said the Germans provided prisoners with only small portions of soup made from "just water and rutabaga".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Another survivor who was held at Westerbork and the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp noted the poor quality of the rutabagas themselves, saying that in some cases prisoners would even discard the "dried out and gray" rutabagas.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
A circular from April 1942 discusses cuts to the rations of the German population by the Reich Ministry of Food and Agriculture. The text gives an account of Germany's dwindling food supply, concluding: "To fill the gap, the Hitler government, just like 25 years ago, the government of Wilhelm II, will feed the German people with promises and with rutabagas" using the German word Kohlrüben for rutabaga.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Rutabaga has a complex taxonomic history. The earliest account comes from the Swiss botanist Gaspard Bauhin, who wrote about it in his 1620 Prodromus.<ref name="Sturtevant" /> Brassica napobrassica was first validly published by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum as a variety of B. oleracea: B. oleracea var. napobrassica.<ref name="IPNI1">Template:IPNI</ref> It has since been moved to other taxa as a variety, subspecies, or elevated to species rank. In 1768, a Scottish botanist elevated Linnaeus' variety to species rank as Brassica napobrassica in The Gardeners Dictionary, which is the currently accepted name.<ref name="IPNI2">Template:IPNI</ref>
Rutabaga has a chromosome number of 2n = 38. It originated from a cross between turnip (Brassica rapa) and Brassica oleracea. The resulting cross then doubled its chromosomes, becoming an allopolyploid. This relationship was first published by Woo Jang-choon in 1935 and is known as the Triangle of U.<ref name="Dixon 2007">Dixon, G.R. 2007. Vegetable Brassicas and Related Crucifers. CABI: Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 6–36.</ref>
Finns cook rutabaga in a variety of ways: roasted, baked, boiled, as a flavor enhancer in soups, uncooked and thinly julienned as a side dish or in a salad, and as the major ingredient in the popular Christmas dish lanttulaatikko (swede casserole). Finns use rutabaga in most dishes that call for a root vegetable.
In Sweden and Norway, rutabaga is cooked with potato and sometimes carrot, and mashed with butter and either stock or, occasionally, milk or cream, to create a puree called rotmos (Swedish, literally: root mash) or kålrabistappe (Norwegian). Onion is occasionally added. In Norway, kålrabistappe is an obligatory accompaniment to many festive dishes, including smalahove, pinnekjøtt, raspeball and salted herring. In Sweden, rotmos is often eaten together with cured and boiled ham hock, accompanied by mustard. This classic Swedish dish is called fläsklägg med rotmos. In Wales, a similar mash produced using just potato and rutabaga is known as ponsh maip in the North-East of the country,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> as mwtrin on the Llyn peninsula and as stwnsh rwden in other parts.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
In The Netherlands, rutabaga is traditionally served boiled and mashed. Adding mashed potatoes (and, in some recipes, similarly mashed vegetables or fruits) makes stamppot (English: mash pot), a dish often served alongside smoked sausage.
In Scotland, separately boiled and mashed, rutabagas (neeps) and potatoes are served as "neeps and tatties" ("tatties" being the Scots word for potatoes), in a traditional Burns supper, the main course of haggis (the Scottish national dish). Neeps mashed with carrots or potatoes is called clapshot. In Orkney neeps mashed with potatoes (tatties) is called clapshot. Roughly equal quantities of neeps and tatties are boiled together in salted water and mashed with lots of butter. Seasoning can be augmented with black pepper. Onions are never used. Regionally, neeps are a common ingredient in soups and stews.
In England, swede is boiled together with carrots and served either mashed or pureed with butter and ground pepper. The flavored cooking water is often retained for soup, or as an addition to gravy. Swede is an essential vegetable component of the traditional Welsh lamb broth called cawl and Irish stew as eaten in England. Swede is also a component of the popular condiment Branston Pickle. The swede is also one of the four traditional ingredients of the pasty originating in Cornwall.
In Canada they are considered winter vegetables, as along with similar vegetables they are able to be kept in a cold area or cellar for several months. They are primarily used as a side dish. They are also used as filler in foods such as mincemeat and Christmas cake.
In Australia, swedes are used as a flavor enhancer in casseroles, stews and soups.
Rutabaga and other cyanoglucoside-containing foods (including cassava, maize (corn), bamboo shoots, sweet potatoes, and lima beans) release cyanide, which is subsequently detoxified into thiocyanate. Thiocyanate inhibits thyroid iodide transport and, at high doses, competes with iodide in the organification process within thyroid tissue. Goitres may develop when there is a dietary imbalance of thiocyanate-containing food in excess of iodine consumption, and it is possible for these compounds to contribute to hypothyroidism.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name="Jones 1998">Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Delange F, Iteke FB, Ermans AM. Nutritional factors involved in the goitrogenic action of cassava. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 1982.</ref><ref>Braverman LE, Utiger RD. Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 6th Edition 1991. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 371–2.</ref> Yet, there have been no reports of ill effects in humans from the consumption of glucosinolates from normal amounts of Brassica vegetables.Template:Fact Glucosinolate content in Brassica vegetables is around one percent of dry matter. These compounds also cause the bitter taste of rutabaga.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>
As with watercress, mustard greens, turnip, broccoli and horseradish, human perception of bitterness in rutabaga is governed by a gene affecting the TAS2R bitter receptor, which detects the glucosinolates in rutabaga. Sensitive individuals with the genotype PAV/PAV (supertasters) find rutabaga twice as bitter as insensitive subjects (AVI/AVI). For the mixed type (PAV/AVI), the difference is not significant for rutabaga.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> As a result, sensitive individuals may find some rutabagas too bitter to eat.
Other chemical compounds that contribute to flavor and odor include glucocheirolin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoberteroin, gluconapoleiferin, and glucoerysolin.<ref>Harborne, J. B., Baxter, H., and Moss, J. P. 1999. Phytochemical Dictionary: A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis, Inc.</ref> Several phytoalexins that aid in defense against plant pathogens have also been isolated from rutabaga, including three novel phytoalexins that were reported in 2004.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>
The roots and tops of "swedes" came into use as a forage crop in the early nineteenth century, used as winter feed for livestock. They may be fed directly (chopped or from a hopper), or animals may be allowed to forage the plants directly in the field.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
People living in the British Isles have long carved turnips and often used them as lanterns to ward off harmful spirits.<ref name=URE>Template:Cite web</ref> In the Middle Ages, rowdy bands of children roamed the streets in hideous masks carrying carved turnips known in Scotland as "tumshie heads".<ref>Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "Festive Rights: Halloween in the British Isles". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. pp. 43, 48. Oxford University Press.</ref><ref name="bannatyne">Bannatyne, Lesley Pratt (1998). Forerunners to Halloween. Pelican Publishing Company. Template:ISBN p.44</ref> In modern times, turnips are often carved to look as sinister and threatening as possible, and are put in the window or on the doorstep of a house at Halloween to ward off evil spirits.<ref>"Pumpkins Passions", BBC, 31 October 2005. Retrieved on 19 October 2006. "Turnip battles with pumpkin for Hallowe'en", BBC News, 28 October 2005. Retrieved 23 September 2007.</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Since pumpkins became readily available in Europe in the 1980s, they have taken over this role to a large extent.<ref name="Baxter">Template:Citation</ref> In the Isle of Man, turnip lanterns are still carved at Hop-tu-Naa (Manx equivalent of Halloween), lit with a candle or electric torch, and carried from house to house by some children, with the accompanying Hop tu Naa song; hoping for money or treats of food.<ref name="wiki1.sch.im"/><ref>Hop-tu-Naa</ref>Template:Better source<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The smell of burning turnip is an evocative part of the event.
A local farmers' market in the town of Ithaca in the US state of New York organizes what it calls the "International Rutabaga Curling Championship" annually on the last day of the market season.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The villages of Askov, Minnesota, and Cumberland, Wisconsin, both hold an annual "rutabaga festival" in August.<ref>http://www.cumberland-wisconsin.com/pages/RutabagaFestivalParade</ref><ref>http://www.askovrutabagafestival.com/index.html</ref>
- Alternative Field Crops Manual: Rutabaga—Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University
- Smillie, Susan. "Are 'neeps' swedes or turnips?", The Guardian, 25 January 2010.