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Shrub

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A broom shrub in flower

A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall.<ref name="LawrenceHawthorne2006">Template:Cite book</ref> Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, such as lavender, periwinkle and most small garden varieties of rose, are often termed "subshrubs".<ref name="Fischer1990">Template:Cite book</ref>

Use in parks

Euonymus bushes in a garden

An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery.<ref name="Whitefield2002">Template:Cite book</ref> When clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes".Template:Clarify Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their structure and character.

Shrubs in common garden practice are generally considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are also shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either deciduous or evergreen.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Botanical structure

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Shrub vegetation (with some cactus) in Webb County, Texas.
Blackthorn shrub (Prunus spinosa) in the Vogelsberg

In botany and ecology, a shrub is more specifically used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than Template:Convert high and usually have many stems arising at or near the base.

For example, a descriptive system widely adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species.<ref>Costermans, L. F. (1993) Native trees and shrubs of South-Eastern Australia. rev. ed. Template:ISBN</ref>

For shrubs Template:Convert high the following structural forms are categorized:

  • dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-shrub
  • mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-shrub
  • sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — tall shrubland
  • very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — tall open shrubland

For shrubs less than Template:Convert high the following structural forms are categorized:

  • dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-heath or closed low shrubland—(North America)
  • mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland—(North America)
  • sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — low shrubland
  • very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — low open shrubland

List of shrubs (bushes)

Those marked with * can also develop into tree form. Template:Div col begin

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B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

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References

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