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Viola adunca

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Viola adunca is a species of violet known by the common names hookedspur violet, early blue violet, sand violet, and western dog violet. It is native to meadows and forests of western North America, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States.<ref name="Sullivan2015">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="PLANTS">Template:PLANTS</ref>

The compact arrangement of Template:Convert round-ovate blunt-tipped leaves, edges generally crenulate, on Template:Convert stalks, and pale to deep violet flowers are characteristic of the species. This individual is subspecies adunca.

This is a hairy, compact plant growing from a small rhizome system. The leaves are spade- or heart-shaped, sometimes with broadly wavy margins. They are generally 1 to 4 centimeters long. The single-flowered inflorescence grows at the end of a long, very thin peduncle. The nodding flower is a violet with five purple petals, the lower three with white bases and purple veining. The two side petals are white-bearded near the throat. The upper two petals may have hooked spurs at their tips.<ref name="Klinkenberg2014">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="WTU Herbarium2015">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="Jepson">Template:Cite web</ref> It is a perennial.<ref>https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_viad.pdf</ref>

There are several varieties of V. adunca; a white-petaled form has been noted in Yosemite National Park.

Has also been noted in Southern Ontario in tall grass prairies on the sand plain and in black oak savannas.

Ecology

Viola adunca is the larval host plant of Myrtle's silverspot. Bees and other insects pollinate it. Polites mardon uses it as a nectar source, and birds and mice use the seed as a food source.<ref>http://web.sonoma.edu/cei/prairie/ecology/concepts.shtml</ref>

Conservation status in the United States

The species is listed as endangered in Massachusetts<ref name="PLANTS" /> and in Connecticut.<ref>"Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 January 2017. (Note: This list is newer than the one used by plants.usda.gov and is more up-to-date.)</ref>

Consumption by humans

The leaves and flowers are edible, and can be eaten in salads, as potherbs, or brewed as tea. These plant parts are high in vitamins A and C. However, the rhizomes, fruit, and seeds are poisonous to humans and can cause upset stomach, intestinal problems, respiratory and circulatory depression.<ref>https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_viad.pdf</ref>

Native American ethnobotany

The Blackfoot apply an infusion of the roots and leaves to sore and swollen joints,<ref>Hellson, John C., 1974, Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 79</ref> give an infusion of the leaves and roots to asthmatic children,<ref>Hellson, John C., 1974, Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 74</ref> and use the plant to dye their arrows blue.<ref>Hellson, John C., 1974, Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 123</ref> The Dakelh take a decoction of the entire plant for stomach pain,<ref>Smith, Harlan I., 1929, Materia Medica of the Bella Coola and Neighboring Tribes of British Columbia, National Museum of Canada Bulletin 56:47-68, page 60</ref> the Klallam apply a poultice of smashed flowers to the chest or side for pain,<ref>Gunther, Erna, 1973, Ethnobotany of Western Washington, Seattle. University of Washington Press. Revised edition, page 40</ref> the Makah chew the roots and leaves while giving birth,<ref>Gunther, Erna, 1973, Ethnobotany of Western Washington, Seattle. University of Washington Press. Revised edition, page 40</ref> and the Tolowa apply a poultice of chewed leaves to sore eyes.<ref>Baker, Marc A., 1981, The Ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa and Karok Indians of Northwest California, Humboldt State University, M.A. Thesis, page 62</ref>

References

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External links

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