Viola odorata is commonly known as wood violet,<ref name="AsakawaAsakawa2001">Template:Cite book</ref> sweet violet,<ref name=GRIN>Template:GRIN</ref> English violet,<ref name=GRIN/> common violet,<ref name=GRIN/> florist's violet,<ref name=GRIN/> or garden violet.<ref name=GRIN/> The plant is known as Banafsa, Banafsha or Banaksa in India. V. odorata is native to Europe and Asia, but has also been introduced to North America and Australia. It is a hardy herbaceous flowering perennial.
Viola odorata can be distinguished by the following characteristics:
- the flowers are aromatic,<ref name="AsakawaAsakawa2001"/>
- the flowers are normally either dark violet or white,
- the leaves and flowers are all in a basal rosette,
- the style is hooked (and does not end with a rounded appendage),
- the leaf-stalks have hairs which point downwards, and
- the plant spreads with stolons (above-ground shoots).
These perennial flowers mature at a height of 4 to 6 inches and a spread of 8 to 24 inches.<ref name="AsakawaAsakawa2001"/> The species can be found near the edges of forests or in clearings; it is also a common "uninvited guest" in shaded lawns or elsewhere in gardens.
The sweet scent of this flower has proved popular, particularly in the late Victorian period, and has consequently been used in the production of many cosmetic fragrances and perfumes.<ref name="Steffen Arctander 1961">Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin by Steffen Arctander, First published 1961, Template:ISBN, Template:ISBN</ref> The French are also known for their violet syrup, most commonly made from an extract of violets. In the United States, this French violet syrup is used to make violet scones and marshmallows. The scent of violet flowers is distinctive with only a few other flowers having a remotely similar odor. References to violets and the desirable nature of the fragrance go back to classical sources such as Pliny and Horace when the name ‘Ion’ was in use to describe this flower from which the name of the distinctive chemical constituents of the flower, the ionones – is derived. In 1923, Poucher wrote that the flowers were widely cultivated both in Europe and the East for their fragrance, with both the flowers and leaves being separately collected and extracted for fragrance, and flowers also collected for use in confectionery galenical syrup <ref name="ReferenceA">Perfumes Cosmetics and Soaps by W. A. Poucher, Vol. 2, Chapter V Monographs on Flower Perfumes. First published 1923</ref> and in the production of medicine.
There is some doubt as to whether the true extract of the violet flower is still used commercially in perfumes.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> It certainly was in the early 20th century,<ref name="ReferenceA"/> but by the time Steffen Arctander was writing in the late 1950s and early 1960s, production had "almost disappeared".<ref name="Steffen Arctander 1961"/> Violet leaf absolute, however, remains widely used in modern perfumery.<ref>An Introduction to Perfumery by Curtis & Williams 2nd Edition, 2009, Template:ISBN, Template:ISBN</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
The leaves are edible and commonly used in salads.<ref>https://www.garden.org/ediblelandscaping/?page=edible-month-violets</ref> Real violet flower extract is available for culinary uses, especially in European countries, but it is expensive.
In herbal medicine, V. odorata has been used for a variety of respiratory ailments,<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> insomnia,<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> and skin disorders.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name=webmd>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> However, there is insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness for these uses.<ref name=webmd/>
The violet flower was a favorite in ancient Greece and became the symbol of Athens. Scent suggested sex, so the violet was an emblematic flower of Aphrodite and also of her son Priapus, the deity of gardens and generation.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref>
Iamus was a son of Apollo and the nymph Evadne. He was abandoned by his mother at birth. She left him lying in the Arkadian wilds on a bed of violets where he was fed honey by serpents. Eventually, he was discovered by passing shepherds who named him Iamus after the violet (ion) bed.
The goddess Persephone and her companion Nymphs were gathering rose, crocus, violet, iris, lily and larkspur blooms in a springtime meadow when she was abducted by the god Hades.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
V. odorata may be the species mentioned in Shakespeare's famous lines:
- "I know a bank where the wild thyme blows,
- Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows,
- Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine,
- With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine"<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>