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Viola pedunculata

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Viola pedunculata, the California golden violet, Johnny jump up, or yellow pansy, is a perennial yellow wildflower of the coast and coastal ranges in California and northwestern Baja California.<ref name="grin">Template:GRIN</ref> The common name "Johnny jump up" is usually associated with Viola tricolor however, the introduced garden annual.

The plant grows on open, grassy slopes, in chaparral habitats, and in oak woodlands, from sea level to around Template:Convert. It prefers part shade, but will tolerate sun in many locations.

Description

Viola pedunculata is a perennial, growing from a spongy rhizome. The plant is often low-growing, but can reach a heights of Template:Convert.

The leaves are 1-5.5 cm long, cordate (heart-shaped) to deltate-ovate (oblong-triangular), scalloped or toothed, and glabrous or hairy.<ref>Jepson: Viola pedunculata . accessed 3.23.2013</ref> They are summer deciduous.

The fragrant flowers appear in March and April, and are a rich, saturated yellow to yellow-orange, with brown-purple nectar guides on the lower petals. The flowers are hermaphrodite, and are pollinated by native and introduced insects. Dried in air, the seeds weigh about Template:Convert each.

Subspecies

Uses

Culinary

The leaves were used by the Diegueno and Luiseno indigenous people of California for food:. The young leaves were picked before the flowers appeared in the spring, then boiled, and used as greens.<ref>Univ. of Michigan: Dearborn — Ethnobotany treatment . accessed 3.23.2013</ref>

The flower buds and petals are edible. As with other yellow flowers in the genus Viola, large quantities may cause diarrhea.
An herbal tea or tisane can be brewed from the leaves.

Cultivation

The plant is cultivated as an ornamental plant by specialty plant nurseries, for planting as a drought tolerant seasonal groundcover or flowering accent plant in native plant and wildlife gardens; and as a potted plant.<ref name="lasp">Las Pilitas horticultural database: Viola pedunculata — (Violet, Yellow Pansy, Johnny jump up, California Golden Violet, and Wild Pansy) . accessed 3.23.2013</ref><ref>Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Database (NPIN)</ref>

They are propagated by seed or nursery/garden divisions.<ref>CNPLX: Viola pedunculata - Nursery and Seed Sources . accessed 3.23.2013</ref> The plant prefers rich soil, and no irrigation water in summer, when it is dormant.<ref name="lasp"/>

When cultivated in colder climates outside its native range where not so hardy, it is most successful when propagated in a cold frame.

References

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External links

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