Viola sororia, known commonly as the common blue violet, is a short-stemmed herbaceous perennial plant that is native to eastern North America. It is known by a number of common names, including common meadow violet, purple violet, the lesbian flower,<ref>https://www.bbg.org/news/weed_of_the_month_common_blue_violet</ref> woolly blue violet, hooded violet, and wood violet.
Hairless common blue violets with purple flowers and bearded spurred petals have been variously called Viola sororia, V. affinis, and V. pratincola.<ref name=fotcr2017>Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="miflora">Template:Michigan Flora</ref> In the Chicago region, this hairless form is most frequently found in weedy areas such as old fields and lawns.<ref name="fotcr2017"/> Hairy purple violets with blue flowers have been called "true" Viola sororia and are rarely seen outside of remnant wooded areas.<ref name="fotcr2017"/>
A form with white flowers that have a purple center has been called Viola sororia fo. priceana (Confederate violet).
Viola sororia has several named hybrids:<ref name="FNA" />
- Viola × bernardii (Viola pedaifida var. pedatifida × sororia)
- Viola × bissellii (Viola cucullata × sororia)
- Viola × cordifolia (Viola hirsutula × sororia)
- Viola × conjugens (Viola sagittata var. sagittata × sororia)
- Viola × insolita (Viola pedatifida var. brittoniana × sororia)
Beyond its use as a common lawn and garden plant, Viola sororia has historically been used for food and for medicine. The flowers and leaves are edible, and some sources suggest the roots can also be eaten. The Cherokee used it to treat colds and headaches. Rafinesque, in his Medical Flora, a Manual of the Medical Botany of the United States of North America (1828 – 1830), wrote of Viola sororia being used by his American contemporaries for coughs, sore throats, and constipation.
The caterpillars of fritillary butterflies feed on these plants. The plants also serve as food for wild turkeys, rabbits, deer, livestock, the mourning dove, the bobwhite, and the white-footed mouse.<ref>Template:Illinois Wildflowers</ref>
It is the state flower of Illinois, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Wisconsin.<ref>2003-04 Wisconsin Statutes & Annotations: 1.10 State song, state ballad, state waltz, state dance, and state symbols.</ref>
The common blue violet is also called the "lesbian flower" because in the early 1900s, lesbian women would give violets to the women they were wooing. This symbolized their "Sapphic" desire, so called because Sappho, a Greek lyric poet, in one of her poems described herself and her lover as wearing garlands of violets. This practice became popular in the 1910 – 1930 time period.
- Template:Connecticut Plants
- Viola sororia from the Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide
- Duke, James. 1992. Handbook of Edible Weeds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
- Viola sororia: University of Wisconsin-La Crosse