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Vitex negundo

Template:Italic title Template:Speciesbox

In vitro flowering in Vitex negundo
Inflorescence of Vitex negundo in Panchkhal valley in Nepal

Vitex negundo, commonly known as the Chinese chaste tree,<ref>Template:PLANTS</ref> five-leaved chaste tree, or horseshoe vitex, is a large aromatic shrub with quadrangular, densely whitish, tomentose branchlets. It is widely used in folk medicine, particularly in South and Southeast Asia.

Vitex negundo is an erect shrub or small tree growing from Template:Convert in height. The bark is reddish brown. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around Template:Convert in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair.<ref name="bpi">Template:Cite book</ref> The numerous flowers are borne in panicles Template:Convert in length. Each is around Template:Convert long and are white to blue in color. The petals are of different lengths, with the middle lower lobe being the longest. Both the corolla and calyx are covered in dense hairs.<ref name="bpi"/>

The fruit is a succulent drupe, Template:Convert in diameter, rounded to egg-shaped. It is black or purple when ripe.<ref name="bpi"/>

Distribution and habitat

Vitex negundo is native to tropical Eastern and Southern Africa and Asia. It is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.<ref name="GRIN">Template:GRIN</ref>

Countries it is indigenous to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam.<ref name="GRIN"/>

Vitex negundo are commonly found near bodies of water, recently disturbed land, grasslands, and mixed open forests.<ref name="prosea"/>

Nomenclature

Common names of Vitex negunda in different languages include:<ref>Vitex negunda in Dr. K. M. Madkarni's Indian Materia Medica; Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp: 1278-80.</ref> Template:Div col

  • Assamese: Pochotia (পচতীয়া)
  • Bengali: Nirgundi; Nishinda; Samalu
  • Bontok: Liñgei
  • Chinese: Huang jing (黄荆)
  • English: Five-leaved chaste tree; Horseshoe vitex; Chinese chaste tree
  • Filipino: Lagundî<ref name="prosea">Template:Cite web</ref>
  • Gujarati: Nagoda; Shamalic
  • Hindi: Mewri; Nirgundi; Nisinda; Sambhalu; Sawbhalu (निर्गुंडी)
  • Ifugao: Dabtan
  • Ilokano: Dangla<ref name="prosea"/>
  • Kannada: Bile-nekki
  • Korean: jommokhyeong (좀목형)
  • Malayalam: Indrani
  • Marathi: Nirgudi (निरगुडी)
  • Nepali: 'सिमली' 'Simali' 'Nirgundi'
  • Punjabi: Banna; Marwan; Maura; Mawa; Swanjan Torbanna
  • Sanskrit: Nirgundi; Sephalika; Sindhuvara; Svetasurasa; Vrikshaha (सिन्धुवार)
  • Sinhala: Nika (නික)
  • Konkani: Lingad
  • Tamil: Chinduvaram; Nirnochchi; Nochchi; Notchi; Vellai-nochchi
  • Telugu: Sindhuvara; Vavili; Nalla-vavili; Tella-vavili (వావిలి / సింధువార) lekkali

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Chemistry

The principal constituents of the leaf juice are casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D, luteolin, p–hydroxybenzoic acid and D-fructose.Template:Citation needed The main constituents of the oil are sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene and globulol constituting 61.8% of the oil.Template:Citation needed

Uses

Vitex negundo is used for treating stored garlic against pests and as a cough remedy in the Philippines.<ref name="pest">Template:Cite web</ref> It is also used to control mosquitoes.Template:Citation needed

In Malaysia, it is used in traditional herbal medicine for women's health, including treatments for regulating the menstrual cycle, fibrocystic breast disease and post-partum remedies.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

In the US, it grows in hardiness zones 6–9 and its purple flowers bloom most of the summer and it is a popular plant visited by bees and butterflies.

The Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry concludes that Vitex Negundo’s leaves can be used to cure sprain, abdominal gas and pain, headache, toothache, asthma, fever, cough, ulcers, boils and wounds as it has antiseptic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

References

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External links

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