Anemone hepatica (common hepatica, liverwort,<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> kidneywort, pennywort) is a herbaceous perennial growing from a rhizome in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), native to woodland in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
The taxonomy of the genus Anemone and its species is not fully resolved, but the latest phylogenetic studies of many species of Anemone and related genera<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> indicate that Hepatica should be included under Anemone because of similarities both in molecular attributes and other shared morphologies.<ref>Template:EFloras</ref>
The leaves have three lobes and are fleshy and hairless, Template:Convert wide and Template:Convert long. The upper side is dark green with whitish stripes and the lower side is violet or reddish brown. Leaves emerge during or after flowering and remain green through winter.
Hepatica flowers only produce pollen. In North America, the flowers first attract Lasioglossum sweat bees and small carpenter bees looking in vain for nectar. Then when the stamens begin to release pollen, the bees return to collect and feed on pollen. Mining bees sometimes visit the flowers, but prefer flowers that produce both nectar and pollen.<ref name="pollinators">Template:Cite book</ref>
Distribution and habitat
It is found in the woods, thickets and meadows, especially in the mountains of continental Europe.
Varieties of Anemone hepatica that are recognized as distinct include:<ref name=TPL/>
- Anemone hepatica var. acuta
- Anemone hepatica var. japonica – Asian liverleaf
- Anemone hepatica var. transylvanica
Medieval herbalists believed it could be used to treat liver diseases, and is still used in alternative medicine today. Other modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimples, bronchitis and gout.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>
It is the official flower of the Sweden Democrats political party in Swedish politics.