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Berberis vulgaris

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Berberis vulgaris L., also known as European barberry or simply Barberry, is a shrub in the genus Berberis. It produces edible but sharply acidic berries, which people in many countries eat as a tart and refreshing fruit.

The shrub native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia;<ref>Altervista Flora Italiana, Crespino comune, Sowberry, Common Barberry, vinettier, espino cambrón, Sauerdorn, Berberis vulgaris L. includes photos, drawings, and European distribution map</ref> it is also naturalised in northern Europe, including the British Isles and Scandinavia, and North America. In the United States and Canada, it has become established in the wild over an area from Nova Scotia to Nebraska, with additional populations in Colorado, Idaho, Washington State, Montana, and British Columbia.<ref>Flora of North America vol 3</ref> Although not naturalised, in rural New Zealand it has been widely cultivated as a hedge on farms. It is cultivated for its fruits in many countries.

It is a deciduous shrub growing up to 4 m high. The leaves are small oval, 2–5 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, with a serrated margin; they are borne in clusters of 2-5 together, subtended by a three-branched spine 3–8 mm long. The flowers are yellow, 4–6 mm across, produced on 3–6 cm long panicles in late spring. The fruit is an oblong red berry 7–10 mm long and 3–5 mm broad, ripening in late summer or autumn; they are edible but very sour, and rich in Vitamin C.

Contents

Culinary uses

The berries are edible and rich in vitamin C, though with a very sharp flavor; the thorny shrubs make harvesting them difficult, so in most places, they are not widely consumed. They are an important food for many small birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.

A widely available Russian candy called Барбарис (Barberis) is made using extract from the berries, which are pictured on the wrapper.

In Europe, the berries have been traditionally used as an ingredient in making jam. The berries are high in pectin which makes the jam congeal as it cools after having been boiled. In southwestern Asia, especially Iran, the berries are used for cooking, as well as for jam-making. In Iran, barberries are commonly used as a currant in rice pilaf.

Zereshk (زرشک) or sereshk is the Persian name for the dried fruit of Berberis spp., specially that of Berberis integerrima 'Bidaneh',<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> which is widely cultivated in Iran. Iran is the largest producer of zereshk and saffron in the world. Zereshk and saffron are produced on the same land and the harvest is at the same time.

The South Khorasan province in Iran is the main area of zereshk and saffron production in the world, especially around Birjand and Qaen. About 85% of production is in Qaen and about 15% in Birjand. There is evidence of cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan two hundred years ago.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

A garden of zereshk is called zereshk-estan.

Zereshk is widely used in cooking, imparting a tart flavor to chicken dishes. It is usually cooked with rice, called zereshk polo, and provides a nice meal with chicken. Zereshk jam, zereshk juice, and zereshk fruit rolls are also produced in Iran.Template:Citation needed

Other uses

The plant is both poisonous and thought to have therapeutic properties in folk medicine.<ref name="vogl">Template:Cite journal</ref> Except for its fruits and seeds, the plant is mildly poisonous.

It has been widely cultivated for hedges in New Zealand.<ref>Template:Cite bookTemplate:Page needed</ref>

Berberis vulgaris (European barberry) is the alternate host species of the wheat rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), a grass-infecting rust fungus that is a serious fungal disease of wheat and related grains. For this reason, cultivation of B. vulgaris is prohibited in Canada<ref>http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/directives/horticulture/d-01-04/eng/1333479606359/1333480359713</ref> and many areas of the United States (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire<ref>http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEVU</ref>), and imports to the United States are forbidden.Template:Citation needed

Berberis vulgaris fruits have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea, jelly or syrup for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, fever, infections, cold, and flu.<ref name=vogl/>

See also

  • Calafate (a related shrub with similar berries, native in temperate South America)

References

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External links

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  • This page was last modified on 2 August 2015, at 19:18.
  • This page has been accessed 172 times.
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