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Bidens frondosa

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Bidens frondosa is a North American species of flowering plant in the aster family, sunflower family. It is widespread across much of Canada, the United States, and Mexico<ref name=grin>Template:GRIN</ref><ref name=fna>Bidens frondosa. Flora of North America.</ref><ref>Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map</ref> It is known in many other parts of the world as an introduced species, including Europe, Asia, Morocco, and New Zealand.<ref name=grin/><ref>Flora of China, 大狼杷草 da lang pa cao, Bidens frondosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 832. 1753.</ref><ref>Altervista Flora Italiana, Forbicina fogliosa, schwarzfrüchtiger Zweizahn, Bidens frondosa L.</ref> Its many common names include devil's beggarticks, devil's-pitchfork, devil's bootjack, sticktights, bur marigold, pitchfork weed, tickseed sunflower,<ref name=itis>Bidens frondosa. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).</ref> leafy beggarticks,<ref name=burke>Bidens frondosa. Burke Museum. University of Washington.</ref> and common beggar-ticks.<ref name=freck>Bidens frondosa. Template:Webarchive Freckmann Herbarium. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.</ref>

Description

Bidens frondosa is an annual herb, usually growing to 20 to 60 centimeters (8-20 inches) tall, but it may reach 1.8 meters (72 inches or 6 feet). The stems are square in cross-section and may branch near the top. The leaves are pinnate, divided into a few toothed triangular or lance-shaped leaflets usually 6 or 8 centimeters long, sometimes up to 12. The inflorescence is often a solitary flower head, but there may be pairs or arrays of several heads. The head contains many orange disc florets. Most flower heads lack ray florets but some may have a few small yellow rays. The fruit is a flat black or brown barbed cypsela up to a centimeter long which has two obvious hornlike pappi at one end.<ref name=fna/><ref name=burke/><ref name=vt>Devils Beggarticks or Stick-tights: Bidens frondosa. Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide.</ref><ref>Bidens frondosa. The Jepson eFlora 2013.</ref>

The barbed pappi on the fruit help it stick to animals, facilitating seed dispersal.<ref name=vt/>

Ecology

Bidens frondosa grows best where there is ample soil moisture and sun, especially in areas where something has disrupted the existing plant community leaving bare ground. It can survive in water saturated soils, frequently found growing at the water's edge, in drainage ditches or on flood plains.<ref name="Hilty">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="CABI">Template:Cite web</ref>

The defoliating caterpillar of Hadjina chinensis, which is limited to Bidens species, has been observed on this plant.<ref>Han, Y. G., et al. (2009). Insect herbivores associated with the introduced weed Bidens frondosa L.(Asteraceae) in Korea, and their potential role as augmentative biological control agents. Entomological Research 39(6), 394-400.</ref>

Invasive species

This plant is invasive in some parts of the world. In New Zealand it is classed as an environmental weed by the Department of Conservation.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> It is also weedy in its native range, occurring in pastures and fields and along roadsides.<ref name=vt/>

References

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External links

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