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Daphne laureola

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Daphne laureola, commonly called spurge-laurel<ref name=GRIN>Template:GRIN</ref> (or daphne-laurel, laurel-leaved daphne, olive-spurge, wood laurel, copse laurel),Template:Citation needed is a shrub in the flowering plant family Thymelaeaceae. Despite the name, this woodland plant is neither a spurge nor a laurel. Its native range covers much of Europe and extends to Algeria, Morocco and the Azores.<ref name=GRIN/> With Daphne mezereum it is one of two species of Daphne native to Britain, both of which have a strong preference for alkaline soils and are most commonly found in limestone areas, although D. laureola is also found on clay.<ref name=Stac10>Template:Cite book pp. 381–382.</ref> However, unlike D. mezereum, D. laureola is an evergreen with yellowish green flowers borne very early in the spring and black berries, which are poisonous to humans but not to birds, present from late summer.<ref>The Reader's Digest Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Britain p.123.</ref> All parts of the plants are poisonous. The sap is known to cause skin rashes on contact.

D. laureola reaches a height between 0.5-1.5 meters. The habit of this shrub can be upright or decumbent (arched at the base then spreading upward). The bark is thin and yellow-grey when mature, while immature stems are green.

The alternate leaves usually form dense whorls at the shoot tips, but may clothe entire branches. The leaves are oblanceolate to obovate-oblanceolate, 2–13 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. They are glabrous (smooth), dark green and glossy on the upper surface and lighter in color beneath.

The inconspicuous yellow-green axial flowers, usually hidden among the leaf bases, may be strongly fragrant, or may exhibit no scent at all.<ref name="ReferenceA">Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board: Daphne laureola</ref>

Outside its native range, D. laureola can become a dangerous invasive weed. Growing in sun or shade, it is well-suited to the temperate forest understory and can rapidly colonize areas (both by seeding and by root suckering) to form monotypic stands and out-compete native vegetation. It is a Class B Noxious weed in Washington state.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Mentioned on 5th Dec 1783, called dwarf laurels, by Gilbert White who “fetched them” from the high wood and hanger at Selborne and planted them in his garden.<ref>The English Year, compiled by Geoffrey Grigson O.U.P 1967 </ref>

Hand-pulling is effective against small infestations (gloves must be worn to protect against the caustic sap); shrubs too large or too small to pull must be dug out.<ref name="ReferenceA" />

References

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External links

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