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Dasiphora fruticosa

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Dasiphora fruticosa subsp. fruticosa, Estonia

Dasiphora fruticosa is a species of hardy deciduous flowering shrub in the family Rosaceae, native to the cool temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere, often growing at high altitudes in mountains. Dasiphora fruticosa is a disputed name,<ref name = IPNI>Template:Cite web</ref> and the plant is still widely referenced in the horticultural literature under its synonym Potentilla fruticosa. Common names include shrubby cinquefoil,<ref name=GRIN>Template:GRIN</ref> golden hardhack,<ref name=GRIN/> bush cinquefoil,<ref name=GRIN/> shrubby five-finger,<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> tundra rose,Template:Citation needed and widdy.<ref name=GRIN/>

Description

It grows to Template:Convert tall, rarely up to Template:Convert. The habit is variably upright to sprawling or prostrate, but stems are often ascending especially those stems with many long branches. The bark of older stems is shreddy with long thin strips. The plants are densely leafy, the leaves divided into five or seven (occasionally three or nine) pinnate leaflets. The leaflets are linear-oblong, Template:Convert long, with entire margins and more or less acute ends. The foliage (both leaves and young stems) is pubescent, variably covered in fine silky, silvery hairs about 1 mm long. The flowers are produced terminally on the stems and are Template:Convert cm across, buttercup-shaped, with five petals and 15–25 stamens; the petals are pale to bright yellow (orange to reddish in some western Chinese populations). The fruit is a cluster of achenes covered with long hairs. The species is variably dioecious or bisexual; flowering is typically from early to late summer. It is normally found growing in moisture-retentive soils in swamps and rocky areas.<ref name=fnwe>Flora of NW Europe: Potentilla fruticosa</ref><ref name=blamey>Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Template:ISBN</ref><ref name=china>Flora of China: Potentilla fruticosa</ref><ref name=jepson>Jepson Flora of California: Potentilla fruticosa</ref><ref name=bc>Plants of British Columbia: Pentaphylloides fruticosa</ref><ref name=rhs>Huxley, A, ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 3: 697. Macmillan Template:ISBN.</ref>

Taxonomy

There are two subspecies:<ref name=GRIN/>

  • Dasiphora fruticosa subsp. fruticosa. Described from Yorkshire, England and Öland, Sweden.<ref name=L.>Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum 1: 495. Online facsimile (scroll to page 495)</ref> Northern Europe (scattered, in Estonia, Great Britain, Ireland, Latvia, and Sweden) and northern and central Asia.<ref name=grin1>Template:GRIN</ref>
  • Dasiphora fruticosa subsp. floribunda (Pursh) Kartesz (syn. Potentilla floribunda Pursh., Dasiphora floribunda (Pursh) Raf., Pentaphylloides floribunda (Pursh) A.Love). Described from Canada, New York, and New Jersey, North America.<ref name=pursh>Pursh, F. T. (1813). Flora Americae Septentrionalis 1: 355-356. Online facsimile (scroll to pages 355-356)</ref> Asia, southern Europe (Spain east to Bulgaria), and North America.<ref name=bc/><ref name=grin2>Template:GRIN</ref><ref>Weber, William. 1976. Rocky Mountain Flora. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.</ref><ref>Carter, Jack. 2006. Trees and Shrubs of Colorado. Mimbres Publishing, New Mexico.</ref>

Numerous varieties have been described from Asia, some of which have not yet been published under the genus Dasiphora, and others in that genus only as distinct species. These include Potentilla fruticosa var. albicans Rehd. & Wils., P. f. var. arbuscula (D.Don) Maxim. (syn. Dasiphora arbuscula (D.Don) Soják), P. f. var. dahurica (Nestl.) Ser. (syn. Dasiphora dahurica (Nestl.) Komarov), P. f. var. pumila J.D.Hooker, P. f. var. mandschurica (Maxim.) Wolf (syn. Dasiphora mandshurica (Maxim.) Juz.), and P. f. var. unifoliolata Ludlow (syn. Dasiphora unifoliolata (Ludlow) Soják). The varieties D. f. var. monticola Rydb. and D. f. var. tenuiloba Rydb. have been described from western North America, but are not widely accepted as distinct.<ref name=china/><ref name=rhs/>

Cultivation and decorative uses

A cultivar with orangey flowers
'Mckay's White' cultivar

Shrubby cinquefoil is a popular ornamental plant in temperate regions. Different cultivars are variable with flowers ranging from white to yellow, orange and pink, but they are all hardy plants that produce flowers for much of the summer. The flowers are always small, flat, and round, but there are many dozens on each bush. It is very often used by cities and businesses for landscaping because of its hardiness and low maintenance. It was introduced into cultivation in the 18th century, but many of the modern cultivars, particularly those with orange or red flowers, derive from collections by Reginald Farrer in western China in the early 20th century.<ref name=rhs/> The vast majority of sellers and gardeners still use the old name Potentilla fruticosa.

All the characteristics of small leaves, delicate flowers, and orange to brown flaky bark make the shrubby cinquefoil suitable for Bonsai. It is very popular in Japan and is gaining popularity in Europe.<ref name="Ma-Ke_Potentilla fruticosa ">Template:Cite web</ref>

Cultivars

Below is a recommended selection of over 130 cultivars which have been named. Those marked Template:Smallcaps have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.<ref name=rhs/><ref>[1] Diana M Miller, June 2002. RHS plant Trials and Awards: Shrubby Potentilla</ref><ref>Poor, J. M., & Brewster, N. P. (1996). Plants that merit attention: volume II. Shrubs. Portland, Or: Timber Press. Template:ISBN Page 204.</ref>

  • 'Abbotswood' - large white flowers and bluish green foliage. Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Beanii' - green foliage and white flowers.
  • 'Chelsea Star' - small yellow flowers. Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Coronation Triumph' - medium-bright yellow flowers, plants are drought- and cold-tolerant and heavy bloomers.
  • 'Daydawn' - salmon-pink flowers. Template:Smallcaps
  • 'Day Dawn Viette' - peach-soft rose flowers highlighted with cream.
  • 'Elizabeth' - yellow flowers to 3.5 cm diameter.
  • 'Farreri' - leaves mostly with seven leaflets, flowers golden yellow.
  • 'Farrer's White' - as 'Farreri', but with white flowers.
  • 'Goldfinger' - deep golden-yellow flowers on plants with dark green foliage, good plant form and heavy flowering.
  • 'Groneland' - white flowers tinged yellow. Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Hopleys Orange' - orange flowers Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Jackman's Variety' - yellow flowers Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Katherine Dykes' - gracefully arching branches with lemon-yellow flowers, medium green foliage; needs regular trimming to keep from becoming leggy
  • 'King Cup' - bright yellow flowers similar to kingcup Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Klondike' - large bright yellow flowers, 3.5–4 cm diameter
  • 'Limelight' - pale yellow flowers with darker centres Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Marian Red Robin' - red flowers, yellow on reverse Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Maanelys' ('Moonlight') - leaves blue-green, flowers pale yellow
  • 'Mckay's White' - creamy white flowers
  • 'Medicine Wheel Mountain' - almost prostrate with bright yellow flowers Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Mount Everest' - flowers large, 3-3.5 cm, white
  • 'Pink Beauty' - deep pink flowers Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Pink Queen' - pink flowers
  • 'Primrose Beauty' - pale yellow flowers, silver tinted foliage; a good performer in the landscape with good habit and blooming, introduced in the Netherlands in 1955 Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Pyrenaica' - prostrate, to 20 cm tall; leaves mostly with three leaflets; flowers golden yellow
  • 'Red Ace' - bushy, upright shrub bearing profusions of single bright orange flowers from early summer to first frost
  • 'Snowbird' - double flowers with 12–15 white petals. Blooms more than 'Abbotswood' and has dark green foliage
  • 'Sommerflor' - golden yellow flowers Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
  • 'Tangerine' - as 'Farreri', but with orange-red flowers
  • 'Vilmoriniana' - vigorous, to 1.3 m tall; leaves grey-white hairy, flowers ivory white to pale yellow
  • 'Walton Park' - flowers very large, 3.5–4 cm, golden yellow
  • 'William Purdom' - leaves mostly with seven leaflets, flowers pale yellow
  • 'Yellow Bird' - bright yellow semi-double flowers with 8–10 petals; medium green foliage and winter hardy, introduced from University of Manitoba Template:Smallcaps<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

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References

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