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Daucus carota

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Daucus carota, whose common names include wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, and Queen Anne's lace (North America), is a white, flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe and southwest Asia, and naturalized to North America and Australia.

Domesticated carrots are cultivars of a subspecies, Daucus carota subsp. sativus.

Description

Queen Anne's lace – Daucus carota
Fruit cluster containing oval fruits with hooked spines

The wild carrot is a herbaceous, somewhat variable biennial plant that grows between Template:Convert tall, and is roughly hairy, with a stiff, solid stem. The leaves are tripinnate, finely divided and lacy, and overall triangular in shape. The leaves are bristly and alternate in a pinnate pattern that separates into thin segments. The flowers are small and dull white, clustered in flat, dense umbels. The umbels are terminal and approximately Template:Convert wide.<ref name=":0">Template:Cite web</ref> They may be pink in bud and may have a reddish or purple<ref>Peterson, Roger Tory, and Margaret McKenny. A field guide to wildflowers: northeastern and north-central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1968. p. 48 Retrieved on 27 March 2017.</ref> flower in the centre of the umbel. The lower bracts are three-forked or pinnate, which distinguishes the plant from other white-flowered umbellifers. As the seeds develop, the umbel curls up at the edges, becomes more congested, and develops a concave surface. The fruits are oval and flattened, with short styles and hooked spines.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> The fruit is small, dry and bumpy with protective hairs surrounding it.<ref name=":0"/> The fruit of Daucus carota has two mericarp, or bicarpellate. The endosperm of the fruit grows before the embryo.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> The dried umbels detach from the plant, becoming tumbleweeds.<ref name="Faulkner1917">Template:Cite book</ref> The function of the tiny red flower, coloured by anthocyanin, is to attract insects. Wild carrot blooms in summer and fall. It thrives best in sun to partial shade. Daucus carota is commonly found along roadsides and in unused fields.<ref name=":0"/>

Similar in appearance to the deadly poison hemlock, D.Template:Nbspcarota is distinguished by a mix of tripinnate leaves, fine hairs on its solid green stems and on its leaves, a root that smells like carrots, and occasionally a single dark red flower in the center of the umbel.<ref>Noxious weeds: Poison-hemlock, King County, Washington</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Uses

Like the cultivated carrot, the D. carota root is edible while young, but it quickly becomes too woody to consume. The flowers are sometimes battered and fried. The leaves are also edible except in large quantities.<ref name=":0"/>

Extra caution should be used when collecting D. carota because it bears a close resemblance to poison hemlock. In addition, the leaves of the wild carrot may cause phytophotodermatitis,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="USFWS 2017">Template:Cite web</ref> so caution should also be used when handling the plant. It has been used as a method of contraception and an abortifacient for centuries.<ref>Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance, John M. Riddle, pg 58.</ref>

If used as a dyestuff, the flowers give a creamy, off-white color.

D. carota, when freshly cut, will draw or change color depending on the color of the water in which it is held. This effect is only visible on the "head" or flower of the plant. Carnations also exhibit this effect. This occurrence is a popular science demonstration in primary grade school.

Beneficial weed

This beneficial weed can be used as a companion plant to crops. Like most members of the umbellifer family, it attracts wasps to its small flowers in its native land; however, where it has been introduced, it attracts very few wasps. In northeast Wisconsin, when introduced with blueberries it did succeed in attracting butterflies and wasps.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> This species is also documented to boost tomato plant production when kept nearby, and it can provide a microclimate of cooler, moister air for lettuce, when intercropped with it.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> However, the states of Iowa, Ohio, Michigan and Washington have listed it as a noxious weed,<ref>USDA PLANTS. PLANTS Profile for Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace. Retrieved June 11, 2007.</ref> and it is considered a serious pest in pastures. It persists in the soil seed bank for two to five years.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Taste

Several different factors can cause the root of a carrot to have abnormal metabolites (notably 6-methoxymellin) that can cause a bitter taste in the roots. For example, carrots have a more bitter taste when grown in the presence of apples. Also, ethylene can easily produce stress, causing an abnormal, bitter taste.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Queen Anne's lace

D. carota was introduced and naturalized in North America, where it is often known as Queen Anne's lace. Both Anne, Queen of Great Britain, and her great grandmother, Anne of Denmark, are taken to be the Queen Anne for which the plant is named.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> It is so called because the flower resembles lace, prominent in fine clothing of the day; the red flower in the center is thought to represent a blood droplet where Queen Anne pricked herself with a needle when she was making the lace.

History through artwork

The history of Daucus carota and its cultivation in different parts of the world can be traced back through historical texts and artwork. Paintings from the 16th and 17th century, for example, that are of maids in a market or farmers' most recent crops can provide information on carrots' history. Studying such paintings shows that yellow or red roots were cultivated in Turkey, North Africa, and Spain. Orange roots were cultivated in 17th century Netherlands.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Taxonomy

The carrot was first officially described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum.<ref name="Linnaeus 1753"/> In 2016 an international team has sequenced the full genome of Daucus carota.<ref>https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing-technology/carrot-genome-sequenced</ref>

Subspecies

"As far as known cultivated forms have only been derived from the species Daucus carota L. Classification of the wild forms of this species is difficult because of a more or less continuous variation in the material. But THELLUNG (20) classifies them in two groups, eucarota and gummiferi, each consisting of five main types (subspecies). Plants of the group eucarota are mostly annuals or biennials; this group comprises the subspecies maritimus, carota, maior, sativus (cultivated carrot), and maximus. Plants of the group gummiferi are often perennials, but they die after flowering once; this group includes the subspecies commutatis, hispanicus, fontanesii, bocconei and gummifer. Daucus carota subsp. carota is the most common wild carrot of Europe and S. W. Asia."<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Both domestic and wild carrot are from the same species, Daucus carota L. There are several subspecies of Daucus carota that have evolved to different climates and atmospheres. Two examples of these subspecies are specifically from the Netherlands. D. carota subsp. sativus has roots that can be a wide range of colors. It has a thicker root and sweeter taste. The whorl of barbs above the spine on the vallecular ridges of the mericarp of D. carota subsp. sativus mature very well. D. carota subsp. carota has white roots that do not vary in color and, unlike D. carota subsp. sativus, have a thin root, bitter taste and are not edible. The middle umbellet of D. carota subsp. carota is not well developed (unlike in D. carota subsp. sativus) and the color of the flower can vary from red to deep purple.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Toxicity

"Daucus [carota] has been reported to contain acetone, asarone, choline, ethanol, formic acid, HCN, isobutyric acid, limonene, malic acid, maltose, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, pyrrolidine, and quinic acid."<ref name="Purdue 2017">Template:Cite web</ref> The amount of toxin overall is small, though it has been known to cause a slight intoxication to grazing large mammals, like cattle and horses, when ingested.<ref name=":1">Template:Cite journal</ref>

Skin contact with the foliage of Daucus carota, especially wet foliage, can cause skin irritation. "Sensitized photosensitive persons may get an exact reproduction of the leaf on the skin by placing the leaf on the skin for a while, followed by exposure to sunshine."<ref name="Purdue 2017" /> Contact with the cell sap of Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota) can cause skin irritation and blistering.<ref name="USFWS 2017" />

Carotoxin

The compound carotoxin is naturally found in Daucus carota. Lab tests show the compound to be toxic to mice and the water flea Daphnia magna.<ref name=":1"/>

Diseases

Black root rot

Black root rot of carrot is caused by a pathogenic fungus Chalara elegans (Thielaviopsis basicola). The fungus infects several types of crops including carrots. C. elegans can infect carrots in all stages of growth, thriving in humidity and warm temperatures. When infected, the carrot starts to develop black markings on the root. The fungus can remain in infected soil for years through chlamydospores. C. elegans thrives in highly acidic, organic soil, especially with large amounts of vitamin C. Damaged carrots in areas of high temperatures are more susceptible to accelerated growth of black root rot.<ref name=":2">Template:Cite news</ref>

Crown rot

Crown rot, or Rhizoctonia solani, is a soilborne fungus. It attacks roots nearing maturity in carrots and may result in the death or severe weakening of seeds before or after germination. Crown rot is most prevalent in wet areas in warm climates. Symptoms on the roots of carrot are typically brown-black deep lesions or cankers near the crown or other root parts. Overall the rotting process is dry, unlike other carrot fungus'. R. solani can survive through winter or longer on the debris of plants. Greatest risk to infection occurs at high humidity with temperatures greater than Template:Convert. Easily spreadable in closely planted fields. The rotation of fields, removing of plant debris after harvest and enhanced soil drainage and air circulation are highly recommended to reduce R. solani survival and infection.<ref name=":2"/>

Fusarium dry rot

Fusarium dry rot of carrot is caused by Fusarium spp,. The soilborne fungi can grow wherever carrots are found. Fusarium dry rot is also called a carrot root disease, but it can also attack the seeds. The fungus develops after full maturity and/or in storage. Fusarium spp, can survive in many ways including plant debris/residue or in mycelia. Wet, warm temperatures as well as wounds on the root can result in the growth of Fusarium spp. Symptoms include brown, leathery lesions, side cankers and the decay of the crown of the carrot. Dry, cold storage of carrots after cultivation can stop Fusarium dry rot from continuing to develop.<ref name=":2"/>

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

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