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Medicago lupulina

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Medicago lupulina, commonly known as black medick, nonesuch, or hop clover, is a plant of dry grassland belonging to the legume or clover family. Plants of the genus Medicago, or bur clovers, are closely related to the true clovers (Trifolium) and sweet clover (Melilotus). Like the true clovers, black medick has three leaflets and a small, yellow flower closely resembling those of lesser trefoil. Black medick belongs to the same genus as alfalfa.<ref name="Golden">Template:Cite book</ref>

Names

The generic name, Medicago, is derived, via Latin Template:Lang, from Ancient Greek Template:Lang (Template:Grc-tr) "Median", because alfalfa was believed to have been introduced from the region of Media in antiquity. The specific name, lupulina, means "wolf-like," and refers to the hop, or willow-wolf (Humulus lupulus). Its scientific name is a translation of the common name, "hop clover" (or "hop-clover"), which is also used for several members of the genus Trifolium.<ref name="WSH"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Also spelled medic or meddick, the plant is known by a number of alternate names, including nonesuch, black nonesuch, black medic clover, hop clover, hop medic, black clover, black hay, blackweed, English trefoil, hop trefoil, and yellow trefoil. Some of these names are also applied to wildflowers of the related genera Trifolium and Melilotus.<ref name="GRIN"/><ref name="ITIS"/><ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Description

Medicago lupulina is an annual or short-lived perennial plant,<ref name=Stace>Template:Cite book</ref>Template:Rp growing each year from adventitious buds on the roots. Mature plants measure from Template:Cvt in height, with fine stems often lying flat at the beginning of growth and later erecting. The leaves are compound, each with three oval leaflets, carried on a short petiole; the center leaflet usually has a longer petiole.<ref name="OSU">Template:Cite webTemplate:Dead link</ref><ref name="WSH"/> The leaflets are hairy, toothed toward the tip, and differ from those of the similar Trifolium dubium in that they end in a short point.<ref name=Blamey>Template:Cite book</ref>Template:Rp<ref name=Stace/>Template:Rp

Black medick has small (2-3 mm)<ref name=Stace/> yellow flowers grouped in tight bunches (compact racemes). On larger plants the flower heads may reach Template:Cvt or more.<ref name="WSH">Template:Flora of Wisconsin</ref> The fruit is a single-seeded pod, 1.5 to 3 mm in diameter,<ref name=Stace/> that does not open upon maturation, but hardens and turns black when ripe. Each pod contains a single amber-colored seed.<ref name="OSU"/>

Like other legumes, the roots of black medick contain nodules hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Plants that survive for more than one year may develop a deep tap root.<ref name="OSU"/>

Distribution

A native of the old world, black medick is found throughout Europe, north Africa, the near east, and most of Asia, including India, China, and Korea. It is naturalized in central Asia, Japan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, and much of South America.<ref name="GRIN">Template:GRIN</ref> Black medick is found throughout the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska.<ref name="ITIS">Template:ITIS</ref>

Black medick thrives in dry to moist, well-drained soils<ref name=BSBI>Template:Cite web</ref> containing sand, loam, or clay, and is a pioneer plant, often growing on disturbed ground. It grows in alkaline, neutral, and mildly acidic conditions. It does not grow in shady areas.<ref name="PFAF">Template:PFAF</ref> Black medick grows well in limestone soils and on coastal sand dunes, where it suffers less competition from the other plants, and as such is found on many islands, such as Taiwan, the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Madeira.<ref name="GRIN"/> It is resistant to cold and can be found on mountains up to 1,800 meters.Template:Citation needed

Uses

Black medick is one of the flowers used to make honey.Template:Citation needed It is frequently found in natural pastures, and may be planted in order to create artificial meadows, especially on dry land. The presence of black medick in large concentrations as a lawn weed may indicate that the soil is poor in nitrogen.Template:Citation needed However, because black medick and other clovers fix nitrogen in the soil, this deficiency can improve over time due to the presence of these plants.<ref name="GRIN"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Black medick is sometimes used as a fodder plant. Its hardiness and ability to grow in poor soils, as well as its tendency to fix nitrogen in the soil, make black medick a good choice for pasturage, although its fodder value is limited.<ref name="GRIN"/> It is grazed by sheep but is not very palatable to cattle.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Similar plants

Black medick may be confused with other plants that have three leaflets and small yellow flowers, such as hop trefoil, large hop trefoil, lesser hop trefoil, and yellow woodsorrel.

Photographs

Illustrations

References

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External links

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