Melittis melissophyllum is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae. Its common name is bastard balm. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Melittis.<ref name=scheen>Scheen, A. C., et al. (2008). Molecular phylogenetics of tribe Synandreae, a North American lineage of lamioid mints (Lamiaceae). Cladistics 24(3) 299-314.</ref> The genus name is derived from the Greek melitta, which is in turn from melissa ("a bee").<ref name=nic>Nicholson, G., et al. The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening: Volume 4. L. Upcott Gill. 1887. pg. 347.</ref>
- Subspecies<ref name=a/>
- Melittis melissophyllum subsp. albida (Guss.) P.W.Ball - eastern Mediterranean from Sardinia to Turkey
- Melittis melissophyllum subsp. carpatica (Klokov) P.W.Ball - eastern Europe from Austria to Baltic States
- Melittis melissophyllum subsp. melissophyllum - western Europe from Britain to Spain + Italy
It is native to central and southern Europe from the British Isles + Portugal east to Turkey + Ukraine + Baltic States.<ref name=a/><ref>Altervista Flora Italiana, Erba limona, Bastard Balm, Melittis melissophyllum L. includes photos + European distribution map</ref>
Melittis melissophyllum reaches on average Template:Convert of height, with a minimum of Template:Convert and a maximum of Template:Convert. It is a strongly aromatic plant with erect hairy stems. The root of this plant is a perennial short rhizome. This species is quite variable in shape of leaves and colors. The leaves reach Template:Convert of length. They are oval, bluntly-toothed, quite hairy. They have a short petiole and are in opposite pairs up the stems. The inflorescence is composed of large pedunculated hermaphrodite flowers (two to six, or more) growing in the axils of the leaves. The flowers are labiate, arranged in pairs and are one-sided (all flowers "look" at the same side). They are usually white or pale pink with a large pinkish purple blotch on the lower lip. They are mainly pollinated by bees and moths. The flowering period extends from May through August.
The plant grows in shady deciduous woods, often with oak, beech, and chestnut. It can also be found among pines and junipers. It is common at altitudes of Template:Convert above sea level.
Bastard balm grows well as an edging in a sunny woodland or as a scrubby border. It is attractive to insects. Cultivars include 'Royal Velvet Distinction'.
- Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982 Vol. II, pg. 452
- Pink, A. - Gardening for the Million (2004) - Project Gutenberg|Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation| Template:ISBN Gardening for the Million
- Klein Carol - How to grow Melittis melissophyllum - The Daily Telegraph - How to grow
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency: Plant Breeders' Rights Office: "Royal Velvet Distinction" - 30 Apr 2007 - Melittis melissophyllum