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Mentha arvensis

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Mentha arvensis, the corn mint, field mint, or wild mint, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae. It has a circumboreal distribution, being native to the temperate regions of Europe and western and central Asia, east to the Himalaya and eastern Siberia, and North America.<ref name=empp>Euro+Med Plantbase Project: [http://ww2.bgbm.org/_EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=111936&PTRefFk=500000 Mentha arvensis Template:Webarchive</ref><ref name=grin>Template:GRIN</ref><ref name=fnwe>Flora of NW Europe: [http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/BIS/flora.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=3517 Mentha arvensis Template:Webarchive</ref> Mentha canadensis, the related species, is also included in Mentha arvensis by some authors as two varieties, M. arvensis var. glabrata Fernald (North American plants such as American Wild Mint) and M. arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex L. H. Bailey (eastern Asian plants such as Japanese mint).<ref name="grin1"/><ref>Quattrocchi, Umberto (1947), CRC World dictionary of plant names: Common names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synyonyms, and Etymology, III M-Q, CRC Press, p. 1659</ref>

Description

Wild mint is a herbaceous perennial plant generally growing to Template:Convert and rarely up to Template:Convert tall. It has a creeping rootstock from which grow erect or semi-sprawling squarish stems. The leaves are in opposite pairs, simple, Template:Convert long and Template:Convert broad, hairy, and with a coarsely serrated margin. The flowers are pale purple (occasionally white or pink), in whorls on the stem at the bases of the leaves. Each flower is Template:Convert long and has a five-lobed hairy calyx, a four-lobed corolla with the uppermost lobe larger than the others and four stamens. The fruit is a two-chambered carpel.<ref name=fnwe/><ref name=blamey>Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Template:ISBN</ref><ref name=rhs>Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan Template:ISBN.</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Subspecies

Subspecies include:<ref name=empp/>

  • Mentha arvensis subsp. arvensis.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. agrestis (Sole) Briq.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. austriaca (Jacq.) Briq.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. lapponica (Wahlenb.) Neuman
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. palustris (Moench) Neumann
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. parietariifolia (Becker) Briq.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. haplocalyx (Linnaeus, eg var. sachalinensis)<ref name="FoC17">Template:Cite web</ref>

The related species Mentha canadensis is also included in M. arvensis by some authors as two varieties, M. arvensis var. glabrata Fernald (in reference to North American plants) and M. arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex L. H. Bailey (in reference to eastern Asian plants).<ref name=grin1>Template:GRIN</ref><ref name=CRCNames>Template:Cite book</ref>

Uses

In ayurveda, Pudina is considered as appetizer and useful in gastric troubles.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> In Europe, wild mintTemplate:Which was traditionally used to treat flatulence, digestive problems, gall bladder problems and coughs. The Aztecs used it for similar purposesTemplate:Citation needed and also to induce sweating and cure insomnia. The oil was extracted and rubbed into the skin for aches and pains. The Native Americans also used it in several traditional ways. It is currently used in many countries for various ailments. Mint extracts and menthol-related chemicals are used in food, drinks, cough medicines, creams and cigarettes.<ref name=Boston>Template:Cite web</ref>

Chemical substances that can be extracted from wild mint include menthol, menthone, isomenthone, neomenthol, limonene, methyl acetate, piperitone, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, tannins and flavonoids.<ref name=Boston/>

Menthol is widely used in dental care as a topical antibacterial agent, effective against streptococci and lactobacilli.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> The oil extracted from Japanese mint can consist of over 70% menthol,<ref>Lipman, Elinor, ed. Report of a working group on medicinal and aromatic plants. Bioversity International, 2009.</ref> which is commonly used in pharmaceutical and oral preparations like toothpastes, dental creams, beverages and tobacco.<ref>Farooqi, A. A., Sreeramu, B. S., & Srinivasappa, K. N. (2005). Cultivation of spice crops. Universities Press.</ref>

Diseases<ref>Sievers, A. F., & Lowman, M. S. (1933). Commercial possibilities of Japanese mint in the United States as a source of natural menthol (No. 378). US Dept. of Agriculture.</ref>

Two main diseases that can significantly damage Japanese mint (M. arvensis var. piperascens) and its yield are the rust fungus and the mildew attacks. Mildew attacks usually only occur on the west coast of United States where the weather can be foggy and humid, a condition that attracts mildew. Rust fungus is a disease that is common for most of the Mentha plants such as peppermint and spearmint. These diseases are flagged due to the almost to none probability of controlling once it starts in a mint farm. They are typically cut immediately when discovered to help reduce the probability of contaminating the rest of the plant leaves.

References

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External links

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