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Tabernaemontana divaricata


Tabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae), commonly called pinwheelflower,<ref>Template:PLANTS</ref> crape jasmine, East India rosebay and Nero's crown<ref>Medicinal Plants of India and Pakistan, Dastur J.F., pub.1962 by D.P. Taraporevala Sons and Co. Private Ltd., Mumbai, 4th Indian reprint 1977Template:Page needed</ref> is an evergreen shrub native to India and now cultivated throughout South East Asia and the warmer regions of continental Asia. In zones where it is not hardy it is grown as a house/glasshouse plant for its attractive flowers and foliage. The stem exudes a milky latex when broken, whence the name milk flower (দুধফুল), টগর or কাঠমল্লিকা in the Bengali language.Template:Citation needed.

It is called "నందివర్దనం" (nandi vardhanam) in Telugu, "நந்தியார்வட்டை" (nandiar vattai) in Tamil and "നന്ത്യാർവട്ടം" (nanthyaar vattam) in Malayalam "നന്ത്യാർവട്ടം" (nandi battalu) in Kannada. Other Indian names include chandni and taggar. It is known as wathusudda වතුසුද්ද (meaning "garden white") in the Sinhalese language. In Cambodia, it is called phka nuon srei ផ្កានួនស្រី or phka dâk khut ផ្កាដកឃុត.<ref>Mathieu LETI, HUL Sovanmoly, Jean-Gabriel FOUCHÉ, CHENG Sun Kaing & Bruno DAVID, Flore photographique du Cambodge, Toulouse, Éditions Privat, 2013, p. 97.</ref> The plant contains several alkaloids and, like many other Apocynaceae, is toxicTemplate:Citation needed and medicinal.


  • Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq.) Stapf
  • Ervatamia divaricata (L.) Burkill
  • Ervatamia flabelliformis Tsiang
  • Ervatamia recurva (Roxb. ex Lindl.) Lace
  • Ervatamia siamensis (Warb. ex Pit.) Kerr
  • Jasminum zeylanicum Burm.f.
  • Kopsia cochinchinensis Kuntze
  • Nerium coronarium Jacq.
  • Nerium divaricatum L.
  • Nyctanthes acuminata Burm.f.
  • Reichardia grandiflora Dennst.
  • Reichardia jasminoides Dennst.
  • Taberna discolor (Sw.) Miers
  • Tabernaemontana citrifolia Lunan
  • Tabernaemontana coronaria (Jacq.) Willd.
  • Tabernaemontana discolor Sw.
  • Tabernaemontana flabelliformis (Tsiang) P.T.Li
  • Tabernaemontana gratissima Lindl.
  • Tabernaemontana indica Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. [Illegitimate]
  • Tabernaemontana lurida Van Heurck & Müll.Arg.
  • Tabernaemontana recurva Roxb. ex Lindl.
  • Tabernaemontana siamensis Warb. ex Pit.
  • Testudipes recurva (Roxb. ex Lindl.) Markgr.
  • Vinca alba Noronha<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
a variety of crape jasmine at Udumalpet, Tamil Nadu


The plant generally grows to a height of Template:Convert and is dichotomously-branched. The large shiny leaves are deep green and about Template:Convert in length and Template:Convert in width. The waxy blossoms are found in small clusters on the stem tips. The (single) flowers have the characteristic 'pinwheel' shape also seen in other genera in the family Apocynaceae such as Vinca and Nerium. Both single and double-flowered forms are cultivated, the flowers of both forms being white. The plant blooms in spring but flowers appear sporadically all year. The flowers of the single form are unscented but the double-flowered form has a pleasing fragrance.<ref>The Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening ed. Chittenden,Fred J. 2nd ed. by Synge,Patrick M. Volume IV : Pt-Zy, p.2074 (as T. coronaria). Pub. Oxford at the Clarendon Press 1965. Reprinted 1984. Template:ISBN</ref>

The roots have a bitter taste.

The leaves of this plant are eaten by the caterpillars of the oleander hawk-moth (Daphnis nerii).

Traditional medicine

They are used in ayurvedic medicine and the traditional medicine of South East Asia, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and Ambon Island.

Chemical constituents

The plant has been reported to contain a variety of alkaloids, including, in the bark of the stem and root, tabernaemontanine, coronarine, coronaridine, and dregamine. Alkaloids are present in all the vegetative parts of this shrub.<ref>Template:Cite bookTemplate:Page needed</ref>



External links