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Thapsia villosa

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Thapsia villosa - MHNT

Thapsia villosa, commonly known as the villous deadly carrot, is a species of poisonous herbaceous plants in the genus Thapsia. It grows to about Template:Convert in height. It has pinnate hairy leaves with sheath-like petioles. The flowers are yellow in color and borne on compound umbels. They develop into fruits with four wings characteristic of the genus. It is native to southwestern Europe and northwestern Africa surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The plant was used extensively for traditional medicine since around the 3rd century BC.

Taxonomy

Thapsia villosa was first described by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum (1753).<ref name="eumed">Template:Cite web</ref> It is classified under the genus Thapsia, subfamily Apioideae, of the carrot and parsley family Apiaceae.<ref name="GRIN">Template:GRIN</ref> Two varieties are recognized: T. villosa var. villosa and T. villosa var. dissecta.<ref name="iberica"/>

The generic name Thapsia is derived from the Ancient Greek name θαψία (thapsía) for the members of the genus. The Greeks believe it to have originated from ancient Thapsos in Sicily. The specific epithet is from Latin villōsus ("hairy" or "shaggy").<ref name="iberica"/><ref name="ichn"/>

It is commonly known in English as the 'villous deadly carrot' or simply 'deadly carrot'.<ref name="partington">Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="donn">Template:Cite book</ref> It is known under a large number of common names in other languages, including bu-nefar in Arabic; zumillo and cañaheja in Spanish; baladra in Catalan; croca in Majorcan; turbit-da-terra in Portuguese; bermidor in Basque; turbith bâtard in French; and turbito falso in Italian.<ref name="eumed"/><ref name="brun">Template:Cite book</ref>

Description

Thapsia villosa is a perennial herb growing to a height of Template:Convert. It has a robust and smooth tapering stem about Template:Convert in diameter, arising from a thick root resembling a white carrot or turnip.<ref name="ichn"/><ref name="mt"/>

Pinnate leaves and sheath-like petioles of T. villosa

The leaves, like the name of the species suggests, are hairy. The leaves around the base of the stem have well-developed sheath-like petioles about Template:Convert wide. Like the leaves, they are also hairy. They are whitish, yellowish, green, or (rarely) purple in color. The leaf blades are triangular to deltoid in shape and are pinnate, subdivided once to thrice. The last leaflet subdivision is usually about Template:Convert wide in T. villosa var. villosa; while they are only about Template:Convert wide in T. villosa var. dissecta.<ref name="iberica"/> The margins of the leaves are curled (revolute) with small teeth-like and triangular serrated edges, each tipped with small spike. The main leaf midrib (rachis) is densely covered in hair and light to dark green on the upper side, while it is smooth and grayish to greenish on the underside.<ref name="iberica">Template:Cite book</ref> The leaves are largest at the bottom and progressively become smaller the higher they are on the stem.<ref name="mt"/> In the upper parts of the stem, the leaves are often reduced to nothing more than petioles which form sheaths around the stem.<ref name="lindley">Template:Cite book</ref>

Like other members of the genus, the inflorescence of Thapsia villosa is a compound subhemispherical to globose umbel. It has 9 to 29 spokes and is about Template:Convert in diameter. Bracts are usually absent, though in rare cases, one to three may be present, each around Template:Convert in length and lanceolate in shape. The umbellules are hemispherical to globose. Bracteoles are also usually absent, though rarely 1 or 2 may be present. Each umbellule has about 18 to 43 flowers, each with five bright yellow elliptical petals. The fruits are oblong and around Template:Convert long and Template:Convert wide. When mature, they are light to dark brown in color with four yellowish to brownish wings characteristic of the genus.<ref name="iberica"/><ref name="mt"/><ref name="lindley"/> The main umbel has hermaphroditic flowers, containing both stamen and pistil. Smaller umbels may develop from the sides of the stem which usually contains only stamens. These umbels wither away quickly.<ref name="ichn"/>

Thapsia villosa is highly variable in morphology. The two varieties, T. villosa var. dissecta and T. villosa var. villosa are usually distinguished by how many times the leaf subdivides into leaflets. T. villosa var. dissecta has leaves that are deeply subdivided two or three times into narrow and small leaflets. T. villosa var. villosa, in contrast are usually subdivided only once or twice. However, there are numerous intermediate forms between the two varieties and distinguishing between them can be very difficult. The diploid chromosome number (2n) of Thapsia villosa is 22, 33, 44, or 66.<ref name="iberica"/>

Ecology

Flowers of an umbellule of Thapsia villosa

Unlike most members of the family Apiaceae, Thapsia villosa flowers early, during the months of May, June, and July. The flowers are pollinated by a variety of insects. The flowers develop into winged fruits that dry out around August, while other members of the family are usually still in bloom.<ref name="ichn"/><ref name="mt"/>

Distribution and habitat

Thapsia villosa in bloom in Puertollano, Spain

The native range of Thapsia villosa extends from southern France and the Iberian peninsula (Spain, Portugal, and Gibraltar) to northwestern Africa (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). It has also been introduced into Corsica.<ref name="iberica"/><ref name="calpensis">Template:Cite book</ref> They can be found growing at altitudes of Template:Convert above sea level in scrublands, clearings, and near recently disturbed land like roads or cultivated fields.<ref name="iberica"/>

In its native range, it is frequently confused with the similar-looking Ferula communis, the giant fennel. Thapsia villosa and Ferula communis share some common names in Spanish like cañaheja.<ref name="ichn">Template:Cite web</ref> Reports of Thapsia villosa in the Balearic Isles is likely the result of confusion with Thapsia gymnesica.<ref name="iberica"/>

Toxicity

Thapsia villosa is highly poisonous.<ref name="fda">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="pammel">Template:Cite book</ref> Skin contact with the roots can cause severe itching and swelling.<ref name="mt"/><ref name="grieve"/>

Uses

Traditional medicine

The medicinal properties of the members of the genus Thapsia has been recognized as early 300 BC.<ref name="srik">Template:Cite journal</ref> In traditional medicine, the roots of Thapsia villosa were used as a purgative and emetic. Resin from the Thapsia villosa was used as a blister-producing agent (vesicant) or a counterirritant, similar to resin derived from Thapsia garganica.<ref name="grieve">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="gould">Template:Cite book</ref> In Spain, the resin is also traditionally used in Segarra as treatment for scabies.<ref name="iberica"/> Poultices made from root bark infused with oil was used as a pain-reliever and for treating rheumatism. These were also used in Salamanca for treating cracks in horse hooves.<ref name="mt"/>

Traditional medicinal uses of the plant, however, are now considered largely ineffective and highly inadvisable due to the danger posed by the poisons of Thapsia villosa.<ref name="ichn"/><ref name="mt">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="smc">Template:Cite web</ref>

Medical research

Along with Thapsia garganica and Thapsia transtagana, Thapsia villosa var. villosa contains C-19 terpenolides with strong SERCA-inhibiting properties in vitro. They are of interest to medical researchers for their potential in treating neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease.<ref name="Alkhamisi">Template:Cite book</ref>

Other uses

Poison from the roots of Thapsia villosa is traditionally used by fishermen in Catalonia as an ichthyotoxin for stunning fish, making them easier to catch.<ref name="mt"/><ref name="arias">Template:Cite journal</ref> Extracts from the root bark of Thapsia villosa have been used since ancient times as a yellow dye.<ref name="brun"/> In the 18th century, yellow dye from the flowers were used to color wool.<ref name="brun"/><ref name="salis">Template:Cite book</ref> Thapsia villosa are also grown as ornamentals for their bright yellow flowers.<ref name="barr">Template:Cite journal</ref>

References

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External links

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