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Turmeric

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TurmericTemplate:Efn is a flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, the roots of which are used in cooking.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> The plant is rhizomatous, herbaceous, and perennial, and is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, and requires temperatures between Template:Convert and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered each year for their rhizomes, some for propagation in the following season and some for consumption.

When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled in water for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines, especially for curries, as well as for dyeing.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Turmeric powder has a warm, bitter, black pepper-like flavor and earthy, mustard-like aroma.<ref name="drugs">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="brennan">Template:Cite web</ref>

Although long used in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is also known as haridra,<ref name="peter">Template:Cite book</ref> no high-quality clinical evidence exists for use of turmeric or its constituent, curcumin, as a therapy.<ref name="nelson">Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name=nccih/>

Botanical view of Curcuma longa

History and distribution

Turmeric has been used in Asia for thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and Unani.<ref name=Chattopadhyay>Template:Cite journal</ref> It was first used as a dye, and then later for its supposed properties in folk medicine.<ref name=NCCIH>Template:Cite web</ref>

Although the precise origin of turmeric is not known, it appears to have originated from Southeast Asia, most probably from Vietnam, China, or Western India.<ref name=Kew/> Not found in the wild, turmeric is cultivated in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and some countries of western Africa.<ref name=Kew/> The world's largest producer, consumer, and exporter of turmeric is India.<ref name=Kew/>

Etymology

The origin of the name is uncertain. It possibly derives from Middle English or Early Modern English as Template:Lang or Template:Lang. It may be of Latin origin, Template:Lang ("meritorious earth").<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The name of the genus, Curcuma, is derived from the Sanskrit Template:Lang, referring to both turmeric and saffron, used in India since ancient times.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Botanical description

Appearance

Turmeric is a perennial herbaceous plant that reaches up to Template:Convert tall. Highly branched, yellow to orange, cylindrical, aromatic rhizomes are found. The leaves are alternate and arranged in two rows. They are divided into leaf sheath, petiole, and leaf blade.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> From the leaf sheaths, a false stem is formed. The petiole is Template:Convert long. The simple leaf blades are usually Template:Convert long and rarely up to Template:Convert. They have a width of Template:Convert and are oblong to elliptical, narrowing at the tip.

Inflorescence, flower, and fruit

Turmeric flower
Wild turmeric, Australia

At the top of the inflorescence, stem bracts are present on which no flowers occur; these are white to green and sometimes tinged reddish-purple, and the upper ends are tapered.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and threefold. The three sepals are Template:Convert long, fused, and white, and have fluffy hairs; the three calyx teeth are unequal. The three bright-yellow petals are fused into a corolla tube up to Template:Convert long. The three corolla lobes have a length of Template:Convert and are triangular with soft-spiny upper ends. While the average corolla lobe is larger than the two lateral, only the median stamen of the inner circle is fertile. The dust bag is spurred at its base. All other stamens are converted to staminodes. The outer staminodes are shorter than the labellum. The labellum is yellowish, with a yellow ribbon in its center and it is obovate, with a length from Template:Convert. Three carpels are under a constant, trilobed ovary adherent, which is sparsely hairy. The fruit capsule opens with three compartments.<ref name= Siewek>Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="kaufen">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=HKRS>Template:Cite book</ref>

In East Asia, the flowering time is usually in August. Terminally on the false stem is an inflorescence stem, Template:Convert long, containing many flowers. The bracts are light green and ovate to oblong with a blunt upper end with a length of Template:Convert.

Phytochemistry

Curcumin keto form
Curcumin enol form

Turmeric powder is about 60–70% carbohydrates, 6–13% water, 6–8% protein, 5–10% fat, 3–7% dietary minerals, 3–7% essential oils, 2–7% dietary fiber, and 1–6% curcuminoids.<ref name=nelson/>

Phytochemical components of turmeric include diarylheptanoids, a class including numerous curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.<ref name=nelson/> Curcumin constitutes up to 3.14% of assayed commercial samples of turmeric powder (the average was 1.51%); curry powder contains much less (an average of 0.29%).<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Some 34 essential oils are present in turmeric, among which turmerone, germacrone, atlantone, and zingiberene are major constituents.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Uses

Culinary

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Turmeric powder
Curry using turmeric, referred to as haldi ki Sabzi, a dish from India
Ganghwang-bap (turmeric rice)
Patoleo – sweet rice cakes steamed in turmeric leaves consisting of a filling of coconut and coconut palm sugar prepared in Goan Catholic style

Turmeric is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods.<ref name=drugs/><ref name=brennan/> It is used mostly in savory dishes, but also is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. In India, turmeric leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, patoleo, by layering rice flour and coconut-jaggery mixture on the leaf, then closing and steaming it in a special utensil (chondrõ).<ref name="tradition"> Template:Citation</ref> Most turmeric is used in the form of rhizome powder to impart a golden yellow color.<ref name=drugs/><ref name=brennan/> It is used in many products such as canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, orange juice, biscuits, popcorn color, cereals, sauces, and gelatin. It is a principal ingredient in curry powders.<ref name=drugs/> Although typically used in its dried, powdered form, turmeric also is used fresh, like ginger. It has numerous uses in East Asian recipes, such as pickle that contains large chunks of soft turmeric, made from fresh turmeric.

Turmeric is used widely as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Various Iranian khoresh dishes are started using onions caramelized in oil and turmeric, followed by other ingredients. The Moroccan spice mix ras el hanout typically includes turmeric. In South Africa, turmeric is used to give boiled white rice a golden color, known as geelrys (yellow rice) traditionally served with bobotie. In Vietnamese cuisine, turmeric powder is used to color and enhance the flavors of certain dishes, such as bánh xèo, bánh khọt, and mi quang. The staple Cambodian curry paste, kroeung, used in many dishes including amok, typically contains fresh turmeric. In Indonesia, turmeric leaves are used for Minang or Padang curry base of Sumatra, such as rendang, sate padang, and many other varieties. In Thailand, fresh turmeric rhizomes are used widely in many dishes, in particular in the southern Thai cuisine, such as yellow curry and turmeric soup. Turmeric is used in a hot drink called "turmeric latte" or "golden milk" that is made with nondairy milks, frequently coconut milk.<ref name=":0">Template:Cite news</ref> The turmeric milk drink known as haldi doodh (haldi means turmeric in Hindi) is a South Asian recipe. Sold in the US and UK, the drink known as "golden mylk" uses nondairy milk and sweetener, and sometimes black pepper after the traditional recipe (which may also use ghee).<ref name=":0" />

Dye

Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast, but is commonly used in Indian clothing, such as saris and Buddhist monks's robes.<ref name=brennan/> It (coded as E100 when used as a food additive)<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> is used to protect food products from sunlight. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. A curcumin and polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Overcoloring, such as in pickles, relishes, and mustard, is sometimes used to compensate for fading.

In combination with annatto (E160b), turmeric has been used to color cheeses, yogurt, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter, and margarine. Turmeric also is used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards, canned chicken broths, and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Indicator

Turmeric paper, also called curcuma paper or in German literature, Curcumapapier, is paper steeped in a tincture of turmeric and allowed to dry. It is used in chemical analysis as an indicator for acidity and alkalinity.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> The paper is yellow in acidic and neutral solutions and turns brown to reddish-brown in alkaline solutions, with transition between pH of 7.4 and 9.2.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Traditional uses

Curcuma domestica Valeton, a drawing by A. Bernecker around 1860
Khandoba's newer temple in Jejuri, where devotees shower turmeric powder (bhandara) on each other

Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia, where it is collected for use in Indian traditional medicine (Siddha or Ayurveda).<ref name=nelson/>

In Eastern India, the plant is used as one of the nine components of navapatrika along with young plantain or banana plant, taro leaves, barley (jayanti), wood apple (bilva), pomegranate (darimba), asoka, manaka, or manakochu, and rice paddy. The Haldi ceremony (called gaye holud in Bengal) (literally "yellow on the body") is a ceremony observed during Hindu and South Asian Muslim wedding celebrations in many parts of India, including Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, and Gujarat, and in Pakistan.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, as a part of the Tamil–Telugu marriage ritual, dried turmeric tuber tied with string is used to create a Thali necklace, the equivalent of marriage rings in western cultures. In western and coastal India, during weddings of the Marathi and Konkani people, Kannada Brahmins, turmeric tubers are tied with strings by the couple to their wrists during a ceremony, Kankanabandhana.<ref name=maha>Template:Cite book</ref>

Friedrich Ratzel reported in The History of Mankind during 1896, that in Micronesia, turmeric powder was applied for embellishment of body, clothing, utensils, and ceremonial uses.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Adulteration

As turmeric and other spices are commonly sold by weight, the potential exists for powders of toxic, cheaper agents with a similar color to be added, such as lead(II,IV) oxide, giving turmeric an orange-red color instead of its native gold-yellow.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Another common adulterant in turmeric, metanil yellow (also known as acid yellow 36), is considered an illegal dye for use in foods by the British Food Standards Agency.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Medical research

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Turmeric and curcumin, one of its constituents, have been studied in numerous clinical trials for various human diseases and conditions, but the conclusions have either been uncertain or negative.<ref name=nelson/><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Claims that curcumin in turmeric may help to reduce inflammation remain unproven as of 2017.<ref name=nelson/><ref name="nccih">Template:Cite web</ref>

See also

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Notes

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References

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External links

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